Future Giants of the 20 th Century Three countries are expanding remarkably: –Russia (Europe and Asia) –The United States (surpassing former continental borders) –Japan (the only oriental state able to block western expansion)
Russia Economic expansion creating work in the Industrial sector – unique situation in Europe. –Immense railway system requires workers –Growth is concentrated in certain regions and controlled by foreign investment. –Russia remains a predominantly agricultural country – 85% population is rural
Russia Controlled Society –Country people are poor –Working class is exploited –Bourgeoisie is in constant conflict with the old aristocracy
Russia Political System is Failing Miserably –The old Aristocracy(power) is not responding to the needs of the people –Liberals are seeking a parliamentary regime –Socialists are seeking revolution!
1905 – Russian Revolution Poorer class remains in the country side Immense working class strike paralyses the industrial sector Mutiny breaks out in the navy “Soviets” begin to appear Repression is bloody but Nicolas II promises the people an elected parliament – Duma. The aristocracy renders the parliament useless leading to the second revolution in 1917. The 1917 Russian Revolution would change the face of Russia forever.
The United States of America At the outbreak of the 20 th century has become the most powerful agricultural and industrial nation in the world. More than one third of the world’s industrial production comes from the U.S.
The United States A Huge Economic Power –Large reserves of natural resources –100 million consumers protected by foreign competition –Efficient production system –Large concentration of businesses –Large foreign investments
The United States American Society –Western conquest has ended –Population becoming more urban –Abuses of capitalism lead to a progressive movement causing a series of reforms –An American imperialism emerges –The U.S. liberates Cuba and takes possession of Porto Rico, Hawaii, the Philippines.
The United States American Society –In the Caribbean they take possession of Panama, Haiti, St.Dominique, Nicaragua, Honduras, Venezuela and Mexico. –1905 they will play the role of mediator in the Russo-Japanese War. –They have become a world power.
Japan – Between Feudalism and Modernism Only oriental country to become industrialized like the West without giving up its independence and sacrificing its civilization and culture. In Japan, the “state” initiates the Industrial Movement Overpopulated with a significant lack of natural resources(greatest weakness). The people are nationalists and very proud of their history
Japan Expansion becomes essential for the growing Japanese Empire Two war victories become particularly important: 1) China (1895) 2) Russia (1905) This becomes the first time since the XVI century that an oriental country defeats a European nation (militarily).