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GORLICE CEMETERIES In 1915 during I World War after finishing the warfare in Galicia the following took place : recording and exhumation of the dead casualties.

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Presentation on theme: "GORLICE CEMETERIES In 1915 during I World War after finishing the warfare in Galicia the following took place : recording and exhumation of the dead casualties."— Presentation transcript:

1 GORLICE CEMETERIES In 1915 during I World War after finishing the warfare in Galicia the following took place : recording and exhumation of the dead casualties cemeteries sketches, cemeteries drawings, technical plans of the cemeteries, as well as purchasing the ground and preparing the cadastral plans. However, in 1916 – 1917 the cemeteries were built.

2 A few sentences about Gorlice operation Bloody warfare, crucial and one of the biggest during I World War on Polish territory is known as Gorlice Operation. Here on Gorlice territory Russian war machine was stopped and the victory of the central countries of Germany and Austro – Hungary was a crucial and deciding moment on the east front. During the warfare the local towns and villages were destroyed together with their churches, as well as Orthodox ones, houses and industrial plants. Town Gorlice was turned into the piles of rubble where only 10% of what was left were safe houses to live in. The most difficult fights took place on 2 nd May 1915. During the 3 days 3 Russian resistance lines were broken, whose armies retreated on the whole 150 km front. On 15 th May the attacking armies of the central countries reached the river San, on 3 rd June they captured Przemyśl, and and 0n 22 nd June, Lwów.

3 A few sentences about Gorlice operation The most bloody fights took place in the suburbs and in the town Gorlice itself as well as in Sękowa, Stróżówka, Łużna, Staszkówka and Biecz. About 20 000 soldiers of both sides were killed in Gorlice battle. Those who were killed were left on the battle field or buried in shallow temporary graves. To put the battle fields into order and to assure all soldiers a dignified burial, the Department of Wartime Graves was created under the Austrian Ministry of War. Major Rudolf Broch was in charge of it with help of conception officers, captain Hans Hauptmann and dr Ludwig Brixel. The area was divided into so – called cemetery regions. One of them was the region number III in Gorlice, which was managed by Austrian architect, lieutenant Hans Mayr. 54 necropoles were built in this region. They are the unique example of cemetery building in Europe and each of them is a unique piece of art.

4 Within the present borders of the town there are 6 cemeteries from I WW No 87 No 88 No 90 No 91 No 98 No 92

5 I WW CEMETERY – No 87 NOWODWÓR The cemetery is located on Łokietka Street, where the yellow trail goes from Gorlice to Bielanka. The area : 586 m2 Project : Hans Mayr Established in 1915 as an independent object There are 205 soldiers burried there: 80 Austrian soldiers from 58th and 98th Infantry Regiment, 37 German soldiers from 56th and 58th Prussian Infantry Regiment, 68 Russian soldiers. Polish surnames can be also found on the graves plates. Renovated in 1995. Powrót

6 1988 r. The cemetery is surrounded by a concrete wall, four brick posts covered by the brick roof create the entrance gate. On both sides of the gate there are iron plates with the names of the dead casualties. I WW CEMETERY – No 87 NOWODWÓR Stan ok. 1917 r. The photo from the Town Hall archive The original wooden cros, seen through the gate. The cemetery straight after the renovations. The photo from the collection of Mirosław Łopata

7 The tall, wooden Latin cross covered by the brass roof is the central element of the cemetery. There are the grave yards on both sides of the alley. There are concrete stelas and crosses with name plates on the graves. 1988 r. I WW CEMETERY – No 87 NOWODWÓR The photo from the Town Hall archive

8 1986 r. I WW CEMETERY – No 87 NOWODWÓR The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice – in the 80s – a huge negligence and devastation.

9 I WW CEMETERY – No 87 NOWODWÓR The entrance to the cemetery – 2006. The information plate – 2006. The photo from the Town Hall archive

10 The entrance gate – 2005. I WW CEMETERY – No 87 NOWODWÓR The central elements – 2006. The photo from the Town Hall archive

11 I WW CEMETERY – No 87 NOWODWÓR The general view- 2006. The photo from the Town Hall archive

12 I WW CEMETERY - No 88 SOKÓŁ The cemetery is situated in Sokół district, on the green tourist trail from Dukielska Street to Wapienne, 200 m from the main road. Area : 403 m2 Project: Hans Mayr Established in 1915 as an independent object There are 120 soldiers buried there : 20 Austrian soldiers from 98th and 10th Infantry Regiment and 3rd Imperial Rifleman Regiment from Tyrol, 100 Russian soldiers. The simplicity and economy in using means of expression attract the attention here. It was created on the Latin cross projection and is surrounded by concrete wall with two symmetrically situated entrance gates. It was renovated in 1996. Powrót

13 The two iron rod gates closed in a triangular way are symmetrically situated on both sides of the statue in its side section of the breaking. The fence consists of a concrete wall with a gable crown. 1986 r. 1988r. I WW CEMETERY No 88 – Dukielska Street The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice The photo from the Town Hall archive

14 The central element is the huge concrete Latin cross visible fro far away. 1986 r. I WW CEMETERY No 88 – Dukielska Street The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice

15 The graves, mostly massive, characterize with metal Latin crosses as well as two – arm patriarchal ones. The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice 1986 r. I WW CEMETERY No 88 – Dukielska Street

16 The general view- 2005 r. The entrance gate – 2005 r. The photo from the Town Hall archive

17 I WW CEMETERY - No 89 Not existing nowadays It was situated at present Kopernika Street and it was closed due to the building of blocks of flats area. The ashes of the soldiers were moved to the cemetery no 91 in Gorlice in 1961 – 1962. The cemetery no 89, designed by H. Mayr was surrounded by the tall fence of stone with a triangle finished entrance gate and its central element was the Latin cross. The entrance gate of non - existing cemetery nowadays. The photo from the collection of Mirosław Łopaty

18 I WW CEMETERY - No 90 It is situated on Stróżowska Street and is an allocated part of Jewish cemetery, on the steep west slope of the Cemetery Mountain. 6 soldiers of Moses religion are buried here – 5 from Austrian and 1 from Russian army. The graves are located about 30 m south from the bottom wall of „ohela”(Jewish chapel). David’s star is put on the graves. Powrót

19 I WW CEMETERY No 90 - Stróżowska Street 1988 r. The cemetery was destroyed in 1942. Now only the remnants of it can be seen There are two concrete stelas with David’s star preserved. The photo from the Town Hall archive

20 I WW CEMETERY No 90 - Stróżowska Street The plate on the entrance gate - 2006 Two preserved matsevah – 2002 The photo from the collection of Mirosław Łopata The photo from the Town Hall archive

21 I WW CEMETERY - No 91 The cemetery that is the showcase of the whole area, is situated on the Cemetery Mountain (357 m above the sea level ). You can get there from J. Korczak Street or using the blue tourist trail from Stróżowska Street. Area : 9216 m2 Project: Gustaw Ludwig and Emil Ladewig There are 120 soldiers buried there : 425 Austro- Hungarian soldiers, 201 German soldiers, 287 Russian soldiers - who died from November 1914 till May 1915 (most of whom were killed on 2nd May 1915) Powrót

22 fot. Ze zbioru Mirosława Łopaty

23 The solemn consecration of the main cemetery no 91 in Gorlice on 1st November 1915. The makeshift statue column made of wood and grenades shells in the place of the present stone cross statue. The postcards from Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice collection.

24 On the outside wall, on the left side of the entrance gate, there are plates with the names of the dead casualties Russian soldiers. The cemetery built on the top of the hill reminds fortified fortress and this impression is heightened by high, made of stone wall strengthened by corner post-donjons. 1935r. 1915r. I WW CEMETERY No 91 – Korczaka Street The postcard from Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice collection - the general view The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice

25 1915r. 1918r. The cemetery can be entered through a huge gate with a front-directed terrace. The gate that is covered with the roof reminds the triumphal arch put in honour of the victorious leader and their army. The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street

26 1935r.1918r. The central element of the cemetery is a dominant stone Latin cross next to triumphal gate, in the middle of the round terrace with four entrances. I WW CEMETERY No 91 – Korczaka Street The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice

27 There are two plates fixed on the front wall of the cross there : One of them from 1928 founded by Gorlice society, with an eagle in a crown in the top part and two-part half-wreath with the swards and a soldier helmet in the bottom part. I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street The photo from the Town Hall archive There is an inscription on the plate : „To our brothers, Polish soldiers of three annexation countries armies, fighting in foreign uniforms, but for Polish cause, who died on Gorlice battlefields in 1914 – 1915 from grateful compatriots who put it in independent Poland in 1928”. Underneath the second plate : „This plate was founded by the Local Administrative Unit circle in Gorlice on 1st September 1928 to be removed on 27th October 1940 and now is put back on its place on 27th September 1945 as a visible sign of the Polish victory over the enemy”.

28 I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street 1988r. Photo from the Town Hall archive - in the 80s – a huge negligence and devastation 1988r.

29 I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street 1986r. The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice

30 I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street The field altar 1986r. 1988r. The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice The photo from the Town Hall archive

31 I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street He entrance gate with the terrace – 2005. The photo from the Town Hall archive

32 I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street The stone cross – 2005 The photo from the Town Hall archive

33 I WW CEMETERY No 91 - Korczaka Street The headstones - 2005 The field altar - 2005 The photo from the Town Hall archive

34 Gorlice May 2005 The Gorlice Battle anniversary is celebrated to commemorate the sacrifice of the soldiers who died in May – one of the most important and the most bloody battles of I WW – called „little Verdun”. The mass is conducted on the cemetery no 91 as well as wreaths paying. The photo from the Town Hall archive

35 Gorlice May 2005

36 I WW CEMETERY - No 92 The cemetery is situated about 250 m east from Stróżowska Street. Area : 86 m2 Project: Hans Mayr Established in 1915 as an independent object There are 98 Russian soldiers buried there. Its creation was based on the plan of the rectangle with projection, surrounded by a concrete fence on three sides and a pale fence from the side with the entrance gate. The wooden Latin cross is the central part. There is an oak tree at the background. Powrót

37 I WW CEMETERY No 92 - Stróżowskiej Street 1986 r. 1988 r. The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice The general view The photo from the Town Hall archive

38 I WW CEMETERY No 92 - Stróżowskiej Street Two-arm metal crosses on concrete pedestals. 1986 r. 1988 r. The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice The photo from the Town Hall archive

39 I WW CEMETERY No 92 - Stróżowskiej Street Wnętrze cmentarne – Stan z 2005r. The general view – 2006 The photo from the Town Hall archive

40 I WW CEMENTERY - No 98 GLINIK MARIAMPOLSKI This cemetery is situated in Gorlice – Glinik district, about 100 m from nearby bypass on Biecka Street. Area : 615 m2 Project: Hans Mayr There are 254 Russian soldiers buried there who died in 1914 and 1915, mainly during the May offensive. The main entrance leads you towards the path at the end of which there is a short statue with an inscription plate. It is covered with birches and thujas. Renovated in 1995. Powrót

41 1986r. The cemetery is surrounded by open-work fence of concrete. The entrance gate has a form of semi-circle vaulted arcade, closed with a concrete arch, going down aslant till the height of the crown of the fence. At the top there is a sphere with two-arm cross. I WW CEMETERY No 98 – Bieckiej Street The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice

42 The I WW CEMENTARY no 98 – Biecka Street – between WW I and WW II. The photo from the collection of Mirosław Łopata

43 There are cast iron two-arm crosses, with the wreaths put on the bottom arm on the graves. I WW CEMETERY No 98 – Bieckiej Street 1986 r. The photo from the collection of Regional Museum PTTK in Gorlice

44 I WW CEMETERY No 98 – Bieckiej Street The general view - 2005 The photo from the Town Hall archive

45 There was the time of a dignified burial of the victims of the senseless war … There was the time of covering History trails and forgetting those who passed … There is the time of deep afterthought, the truth, material renovation and countiniously coming back thought: Is there a world peace possible? The end of presentation. The Town Hall would like to thank PTTK Museum in Gorlice and Miroslaw Lopata for making the photos available for this presentation.


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