2The Catholic ChurchThe Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in EuropeIn charge of education → decided what people learnedOwned a lot of land (=$$)European leaders did what the Church told them toRichest institution in the worldMass performed in Latin - not understandable by the average person
3Why Were People Unhappy?? Catholicism in the 1400sSome people felt Church wasn’t following its own rules → concerns led to the Protestant ReformationWhy Were People Unhappy??Mass said in Latin – people couldn’t understandTithes: by law, people had to pay 10% of their income to the Church$ often used so priests could live extravagant lifestyles, while common people were sufferingPriests didn’t follow the many of their own rulesPeople’s respect for priests, monks, popes weakened
4Selling Indulgences Church needed $$ to build St. Peter’s Basilica Pope Leo X approved sale of indulgencesIndulgences reduced soul’s time in purgatoryPurgatory: where your soul had to work off your sins before you could go to heaven or hellAfter buying an indulgence, a person got a piece of paper saying they were “free of sin”People didn’t stop sinning, just bought more indulgences = more $$ for Church
5Martin Luther1517: Martin Luther’s public criticism of the Church starts the Protestant ReformationMartin Luther = Catholic monk in GermanyWell educated – could read the bible in LatinWrote the 95 Theses: list of 95 things he believed were very wrong with the ChurchCriticized power of pope, wealth of ChurchBible never mentioned indulgences → selling indulgences was a sinWrote theses in German so average person could readNailed theses to door of Wittenberg CastleTheses was published and widely readDesire for reform grewNailing things to doors was very common – like a community bulletin board
6Luther’s Message1519: declared the only leader of Christian church was Jesus, not the popeSaid God’s forgiveness couldn’t be won through good works, only through faithIndividual Christians should be able to read and interpret the bible, not rely on a priestLuther translated Bible into GermanAllowed more people to read Bible independentlySo what’s the problem??His teachings contradict what the Church is teaching and take power away from the Church.
7Again … who cares? Why does it matter that some monk in Germany is criticizing the Church? Surely this can’t be the first time someone has been critical!Question: what makes this particular time period so different?Answer: The printing press!
9Theses spread throughout Europe Church freaked out – couldn’t have so many people questioning their authority!Pope ordered Luther to recant (take back) his ideas, or face excommunication (have his membership to the Church taken away)
101520: officially excommunicated 1521: ordered to Worms to appear before Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor)Told to recant, refusedEmperor issued the Edict of Worms officially made Luther an outlaw and banned his writings1529: Charles tried to get rid of Lutherans in Germany (under pressure from Vatican)German princes issued a protestation (protest) against this since many were now LutheranThis is where the term Protestant comes from!Charles V forced to back downVideo Clip
11Lutheranism Quickly spread through Germany Led to political, economic, and social upheavalLed to religious extremismRulers used it as a reason to attack neighboring areasPeasants used it as a reason to revolt
13John CalvinJohn Calvin: second most important Protestant reformerEducated in France, influenced humanistsLived in Geneva, SwitzerlandSalvation?Predestination!God knows who will be saved and who won’tNothing humans can do, good or bad, will change the predestined endBelieved people are sinful by natureUsed strict laws to regulate behaviorVideo Clip
14Other Reformers John Knox Anabaptists Scotland Reformed Church replaced Roman Catholic ChurchLaid groundwork for later PresbyteriansAnabaptistsInsisted on rebaptizing adultsBaptism didn’t make sense for infantsBaptizing adults was a crime punishable by death at that timeEvolved into Hutterites, the Mennonites, and the Amish Mennonites
16Reformation Spreads to England (aka: A Series of Problems) 1509: Henry VIII (8th) became king at 17Devout Catholic, hated LutherProblem 1: Henry wanted a son, but only had daughter Mary (thought female monarch would weaken England)Solution! Have marriage to Catherine annulled (declared invalid)Problem 2: Pope wouldn’t agreeProblem 3: Henry had fallen in love with his mistress, Anne BoleynProblem 4: Henry doesn’t like being told “no”
17Solution: Adios Church! England declared it no longer considered itself under the authority of the pope1533: Anne Boleyn and Henry secretly married, marriage to Catherine annulledAnne gave birth to daughter, Elizabeth1534: Church of England createdHenry named “Supreme Head of Church of England”Members known as AnglicanRituals very similar to Catholic ChurchClosed Catholic monasteries, convents, distributed much of land to noblesBuilt public support for split from Church because nobility was able to gain financiallyShow video clip from the Secrets of the Tower of London on Netflix!Video Clip
18The Six Wives of Henry VIII AnnulledBeheadedDied after ChildbirthDivorcedBeheadedWidowed
19Henry’s Kids Bloody Mary Elizabeth I Third wife, Jane Seymour, gave England male heir - Edward VI1547: Edward VI took throne at age 9Edward died at 16; oldest sister, Mary became queen of EnglandBloody MaryReturned England to CatholicismHundreds burned at stake for Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary”1558: DiedElizabeth I1559: new Supremacy Act, splitting England again from VaticanPersecuted Catholics to stay in power1603: Died1587: Mary Queen of Scots executed
20The Counter-Reformation (aka: the Catholic Response) Council of TrentThe Society of Jesus (“Jesuits”)The InquisitionThe Index: list of book prohibited by the ChurchFirst version included works by Luther, Calvin, Galileo, Kepler, etc.Most recent version of the Index (the 20th) was published in 1966!
21The Council of Trent Pope Paul III saw need for reform The Council of Trent met three times over three decadesStopped some spread of Protestant ReformationBy 1650 at least half of all Protestants had reconverted!
22Catholic Reforms (?) No compromise with Protestants Mass still in LatinIdea that salvation required faith and good works keptStill sold indulgences, just limited the number you could buy each yearReformed the priesthoodEnded abuses of power and corruption within the clergyEstablished seminaries to educate priestsStrongly supported papal power and strengthened the authority of the Pope
23The Society of JesusFounded by Ignatius of Loyola after he was wounded in battleMade vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the Pope and ChurchInsisted on high levels of education for the clergy, hoping this would deal with the issues in the ChurchKnown for work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits, missionary work, and promotion of social justiceBoston College is home to one of the world’s largest Jesuit communities!
25The Inquisition Intended to stop heresy Heresy: opinions that differed from those of the ChurchInquisitors could remove priests from office, not allow certain things to be said or printed, call in help from armies, and punish hereticsOnly pope could pardon, didn’t happen oftenCountries asked to help with InquisitionFrance refusedSpain very involvedBurnings common throughout Italy, especially in RomeNo one expects the Spanish Inquisition!
26It’s about more than just religion though! Conflict between England and SpainBetween 1540’s and 1580’s: England and Spain fightingSpain’s King Philip II (married to Bloody Mary and hoped to marry Elizabeth I) planned to invade England to stop the expansion of the ProtestantismElizabeth’s navy defeated the much larger Spanish Armada.The loss of almost the entire Spanish fleet opened passage to the New World to England, France, and the NetherlandsElizabeth II Scene on Armada
27Results of the Reformation Christianity dividedGrowing doubt about Church amongst common peopleIndividualism and secularism grewOver 100 years of religious warfare beganGermany politically weakened(Remember Emperor sided with the Church and the Princes sided with Luther)Pope’s power increased through Catholic ReformationEnding on a HAPPY note