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The Protestant Reformation

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Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Protestant Reformation

2 The Catholic Church The Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe In charge of education → decided what people learned Owned a lot of land (=$$) European leaders did what the Church told them to Richest institution in the world Mass performed in Latin - not understandable by the average person

3 Why Were People Unhappy??
Catholicism in the 1400s Some people felt Church wasn’t following its own rules → concerns led to the Protestant Reformation Why Were People Unhappy?? Mass said in Latin – people couldn’t understand Tithes: by law, people had to pay 10% of their income to the Church $ often used so priests could live extravagant lifestyles, while common people were suffering Priests didn’t follow the many of their own rules People’s respect for priests, monks, popes weakened

4 Selling Indulgences Church needed $$ to build St. Peter’s Basilica
Pope Leo X approved sale of indulgences Indulgences reduced soul’s time in purgatory Purgatory: where your soul had to work off your sins before you could go to heaven or hell After buying an indulgence, a person got a piece of paper saying they were “free of sin” People didn’t stop sinning, just bought more indulgences = more $$ for Church

5 Martin Luther 1517: Martin Luther’s public criticism of the Church starts the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther = Catholic monk in Germany Well educated – could read the bible in Latin Wrote the 95 Theses: list of 95 things he believed were very wrong with the Church Criticized power of pope, wealth of Church Bible never mentioned indulgences → selling indulgences was a sin Wrote theses in German so average person could read Nailed theses to door of Wittenberg Castle Theses was published and widely read Desire for reform grew Nailing things to doors was very common – like a community bulletin board

6 Luther’s Message 1519: declared the only leader of Christian church was Jesus, not the pope Said God’s forgiveness couldn’t be won through good works, only through faith Individual Christians should be able to read and interpret the bible, not rely on a priest Luther translated Bible into German Allowed more people to read Bible independently So what’s the problem?? His teachings contradict what the Church is teaching and take power away from the Church.

7 Again … who cares? Why does it matter that some monk in Germany is criticizing the Church? Surely this can’t be the first time someone has been critical! Question: what makes this particular time period so different? Answer: The printing press!

8 Now it makes more sense…
Long Video Clip

9 Theses spread throughout Europe
Church freaked out – couldn’t have so many people questioning their authority! Pope ordered Luther to recant (take back) his ideas, or face excommunication (have his membership to the Church taken away)

10 1520: officially excommunicated
1521: ordered to Worms to appear before Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) Told to recant, refused Emperor issued the Edict of Worms  officially made Luther an outlaw and banned his writings 1529: Charles tried to get rid of Lutherans in Germany (under pressure from Vatican) German princes issued a protestation (protest) against this since many were now Lutheran This is where the term Protestant comes from! Charles V forced to back down Video Clip

11 Lutheranism Quickly spread through Germany
Led to political, economic, and social upheaval Led to religious extremism Rulers used it as a reason to attack neighboring areas Peasants used it as a reason to revolt

12 The Spread of Protestantism

13 John Calvin John Calvin: second most important Protestant reformer Educated in France, influenced humanists Lived in Geneva, Switzerland Salvation? Predestination! God knows who will be saved and who won’t Nothing humans can do, good or bad, will change the predestined end Believed people are sinful by nature Used strict laws to regulate behavior Video Clip

14 Other Reformers John Knox Anabaptists Scotland
Reformed Church replaced Roman Catholic Church Laid groundwork for later Presbyterians Anabaptists Insisted on rebaptizing adults Baptism didn’t make sense for infants Baptizing adults was a crime punishable by death at that time Evolved into Hutterites, the Mennonites, and the Amish Mennonites

15 Different Countries, Different Reforms
Germany - Lutherans Switzerland - Calvinists Scotland - Presbyterians England - Anglicans Holland - Dutch Reform France - Huguenots

16 Reformation Spreads to England (aka: A Series of Problems)
1509: Henry VIII (8th) became king at 17 Devout Catholic, hated Luther Problem 1: Henry wanted a son, but only had daughter Mary (thought female monarch would weaken England) Solution! Have marriage to Catherine annulled (declared invalid) Problem 2: Pope wouldn’t agree Problem 3: Henry had fallen in love with his mistress, Anne Boleyn Problem 4: Henry doesn’t like being told “no”

17 Solution: Adios Church!
England declared it no longer considered itself under the authority of the pope 1533: Anne Boleyn and Henry secretly married, marriage to Catherine annulled Anne gave birth to daughter, Elizabeth 1534: Church of England created Henry named “Supreme Head of Church of England” Members known as Anglican Rituals very similar to Catholic Church Closed Catholic monasteries, convents, distributed much of land to nobles Built public support for split from Church because nobility was able to gain financially Show video clip from the Secrets of the Tower of London on Netflix! Video Clip

18 The Six Wives of Henry VIII
Annulled Beheaded Died after Childbirth Divorced Beheaded Widowed

19 Henry’s Kids Bloody Mary Elizabeth I
Third wife, Jane Seymour, gave England male heir - Edward VI 1547: Edward VI took throne at age 9 Edward died at 16; oldest sister, Mary became queen of England Bloody Mary Returned England to Catholicism Hundreds burned at stake for Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary” 1558: Died Elizabeth I 1559: new Supremacy Act, splitting England again from Vatican Persecuted Catholics to stay in power 1603: Died 1587: Mary Queen of Scots executed

20 The Counter-Reformation (aka: the Catholic Response)
Council of Trent The Society of Jesus (“Jesuits”) The Inquisition The Index: list of book prohibited by the Church First version included works by Luther, Calvin, Galileo, Kepler, etc. Most recent version of the Index (the 20th) was published in 1966!

21 The Council of Trent Pope Paul III saw need for reform
The Council of Trent met three times over three decades Stopped some spread of Protestant Reformation By 1650 at least half of all Protestants had reconverted!

22 Catholic Reforms (?) No compromise with Protestants
Mass still in Latin Idea that salvation required faith and good works kept Still sold indulgences, just limited the number you could buy each year Reformed the priesthood Ended abuses of power and corruption within the clergy Established seminaries to educate priests Strongly supported papal power and strengthened the authority of the Pope

23 The Society of Jesus Founded by Ignatius of Loyola after he was wounded in battle Made vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the Pope and Church Insisted on high levels of education for the clergy, hoping this would deal with the issues in the Church Known for work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits, missionary work, and promotion of social justice Boston College is home to one of the world’s largest Jesuit communities!

24 F.Y.I. Pope Francis is the first Jesuit pope!

25 The Inquisition Intended to stop heresy
Heresy: opinions that differed from those of the Church Inquisitors could remove priests from office, not allow certain things to be said or printed, call in help from armies, and punish heretics Only pope could pardon, didn’t happen often Countries asked to help with Inquisition France refused Spain very involved Burnings common throughout Italy, especially in Rome No one expects the Spanish Inquisition!

26 It’s about more than just religion though!
Conflict between England and Spain Between 1540’s and 1580’s: England and Spain fighting Spain’s King Philip II (married to Bloody Mary and hoped to marry Elizabeth I) planned to invade England to stop the expansion of the Protestantism Elizabeth’s navy defeated the much larger Spanish Armada. The loss of almost the entire Spanish fleet opened passage to the New World to England, France, and the Netherlands Elizabeth II Scene on Armada

27 Results of the Reformation
Christianity divided Growing doubt about Church amongst common people Individualism and secularism grew Over 100 years of religious warfare began Germany politically weakened (Remember Emperor sided with the Church and the Princes sided with Luther) Pope’s power increased through Catholic Reformation Ending on a HAPPY note


29 The Spread of Religion Worldwide

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