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The Catholic Church  The Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe  In charge of education → decided what people learned  Owned.

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Presentation on theme: "The Catholic Church  The Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe  In charge of education → decided what people learned  Owned."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Catholic Church  The Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe  In charge of education → decided what people learned  Owned a lot of land (=$$)  European leaders did what the Church told them to  Richest institution in the world  The Roman Catholic Church was the most powerful institution in Europe  In charge of education → decided what people learned  Owned a lot of land (=$$)  European leaders did what the Church told them to  Richest institution in the world

3 Catholicism in the 1400s Some people felt Church wasn’t following its own rules → concerns led to the Protestant Reformation Why Were People Unhappy?? 1.Mass said in Latin – people couldn’t understand 2.Tithes: by law, people had to pay 10% of their income to the Church $ often used so priests could live extravagant lifestyles, while common people were suffering 3.Priests didn’t follow the many of their own rules 4.People ’ s respect for priests, monks, popes weakened

4 Selling Indulgences Church needed $$ to build St. Peter ’ s Basilica Pope Leo X approved sale of indulgences Indulgences reduced soul ’s time in purgatory Purgatory: where your soul had to work off your sins before you could go to heaven or hell After buying an indulgence, a person got a piece of paper saying they were “free of sin” People didn’t stop sinning, just bought more indulgences = more $$ for Church Church needed $$ to build St. Peter ’ s Basilica Pope Leo X approved sale of indulgences Indulgences reduced soul ’s time in purgatory Purgatory: where your soul had to work off your sins before you could go to heaven or hell After buying an indulgence, a person got a piece of paper saying they were “free of sin” People didn’t stop sinning, just bought more indulgences = more $$ for Church

5 Martin Luther Martin Luther = Catholic monk in Germany Well educated – could read the bible in Latin Wrote the 95 Theses: list of 95 things he believed were very wrong with the Church Criticized power of pope, wealth of Church Bible never mentioned indulgences → selling indulgences was a sin Martin Luther = Catholic monk in Germany Well educated – could read the bible in Latin Wrote the 95 Theses: list of 95 things he believed were very wrong with the Church Criticized power of pope, wealth of Church Bible never mentioned indulgences → selling indulgences was a sin Wrote theses in German so average person could read Nailed theses to door of Wittenberg Castle Theses was published and widely read Desire for reform grew Wrote theses in German so average person could read Nailed theses to door of Wittenberg Castle Theses was published and widely read Desire for reform grew 1517: Martin Luther’s public criticism of the Church starts the Protestant Reformation

6 Luther’s Message 1519: declared the only leader of Christian church was Jesus, not the pope Said God’s forgiveness couldn’t be won through good works, only through faith Individual Christians should be able to read and interpret the bible, not rely on a priest Luther translated Bible into German Allowed more people to read Bible independently So what’s the problem?? His teachings contradict what the Church is teaching and take power away from the Church. 1519: declared the only leader of Christian church was Jesus, not the pope Said God’s forgiveness couldn’t be won through good works, only through faith Individual Christians should be able to read and interpret the bible, not rely on a priest Luther translated Bible into German Allowed more people to read Bible independently So what’s the problem?? His teachings contradict what the Church is teaching and take power away from the Church.

7 Again … who cares? Why does it matter that some monk in Germany is criticizing the Church? Surely this can’t be the first time someone has been critical! Again … who cares? Why does it matter that some monk in Germany is criticizing the Church? Surely this can’t be the first time someone has been critical!

8 Now it makes more sense… Long Video Clip

9  Theses spread throughout Europe  Church freaked out – couldn’t have so many people questioning their authority!  Pope ordered Luther to recant (take back) his ideas, or face excommunication (have his membership to the Church taken away)  Theses spread throughout Europe  Church freaked out – couldn’t have so many people questioning their authority!  Pope ordered Luther to recant (take back) his ideas, or face excommunication (have his membership to the Church taken away)

10 1520: officially excommunicated 1521: ordered to Worms to appear before Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) Told to recant, refused Emperor issued the Edict of Worms  officially made Luther an outlaw and banned his writings 1529: Charles tried to get rid of Lutherans in Germany (under pressure from Vatican) German princes issued a protestation (protest) against this since many were now Lutheran This is where the term Protestant comes from! Charles V forced to back down 1520: officially excommunicated 1521: ordered to Worms to appear before Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) Told to recant, refused Emperor issued the Edict of Worms  officially made Luther an outlaw and banned his writings 1529: Charles tried to get rid of Lutherans in Germany (under pressure from Vatican) German princes issued a protestation (protest) against this since many were now Lutheran This is where the term Protestant comes from! Charles V forced to back down Video Clip

11 Lutheranism Quickly spread through Germany Led to political, economic, and social upheaval Led to religious extremism Quickly spread through Germany Led to political, economic, and social upheaval Led to religious extremism

12 The Spread of Protestantism

13 John Calvin John Calvin: second most important Protestant reformer Educated in France, influenced humanists Lived in Geneva, Switzerland John Calvin: second most important Protestant reformer Educated in France, influenced humanists Lived in Geneva, Switzerland Salvation? Predestination! God knows who will be saved and who won’t Nothing humans can do, good or bad, will change the predestined end Believed people are sinful by nature Used strict laws to regulate behavior Salvation? Predestination! God knows who will be saved and who won’t Nothing humans can do, good or bad, will change the predestined end Believed people are sinful by nature Used strict laws to regulate behavior Video Clip

14 Other Reformers John Knox Scotland Reformed Church replaced Roman Catholic Church Laid groundwork for later Presbyterians John Knox Scotland Reformed Church replaced Roman Catholic Church Laid groundwork for later Presbyterians Anabaptists Insisted on rebaptizing adults Baptism didn’t make sense for infants Baptizing adults was a crime punishable by death at that time Evolved into Hutterites, the Mennonites, and the Amish Mennonites Anabaptists Insisted on rebaptizing adults Baptism didn’t make sense for infants Baptizing adults was a crime punishable by death at that time Evolved into Hutterites, the Mennonites, and the Amish Mennonites

15 Different Countries, Different Reforms Germany - Lutherans Switzerland - Calvinists Scotland - Presbyterians England - Anglicans Holland - Dutch Reform France - Huguenots Germany - Lutherans Switzerland - Calvinists Scotland - Presbyterians England - Anglicans Holland - Dutch Reform France - Huguenots

16 Reformation Spreads to England (aka: A Series of Problems) 1509: Henry VIII (8th) became king at 17 Devout Catholic, hated Luther Problem 1: Henry wanted a son, but only had daughter Mary (thought female monarch would weaken England) Solution! Have marriage to Catherine annulled (declared invalid) Problem 2: Pope wouldn’t agree Problem 3: Henry had fallen in love with his mistress, Anne Boleyn Problem 4: Henry doesn’t like being told “no” 1509: Henry VIII (8th) became king at 17 Devout Catholic, hated Luther Problem 1: Henry wanted a son, but only had daughter Mary (thought female monarch would weaken England) Solution! Have marriage to Catherine annulled (declared invalid) Problem 2: Pope wouldn’t agree Problem 3: Henry had fallen in love with his mistress, Anne Boleyn Problem 4: Henry doesn’t like being told “no”

17 Solution: Adios Church! England declared it no longer considered itself under the authority of the pope 1533: Anne Boleyn and Henry secretly married, marriage to Catherine annulled Anne gave birth to daughter, Elizabeth 1534: Church of England created Henry named “Supreme Head of Church of England” Members known as Anglican Rituals very similar to Catholic Church Closed Catholic monasteries, convents, distributed much of land to nobles Built public support for split from Church because nobility was able to gain financially England declared it no longer considered itself under the authority of the pope 1533: Anne Boleyn and Henry secretly married, marriage to Catherine annulled Anne gave birth to daughter, Elizabeth 1534: Church of England created Henry named “Supreme Head of Church of England” Members known as Anglican Rituals very similar to Catholic Church Closed Catholic monasteries, convents, distributed much of land to nobles Built public support for split from Church because nobility was able to gain financially Video Clip

18 The Six Wives of Henry VIII AnnulledBeheaded DivorcedWidowed Died after Childbirth

19 Henry’s Kids Third wife, Jane Seymour, gave England male heir - Edward VI 1547: Edward VI took throne at age 9 Edward died at 16; oldest sister, Mary became queen of England Third wife, Jane Seymour, gave England male heir - Edward VI 1547: Edward VI took throne at age 9 Edward died at 16; oldest sister, Mary became queen of England Bloody Mary Returned England to Catholicism Hundreds burned at stake for Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary” 1558: Died Bloody Mary Returned England to Catholicism Hundreds burned at stake for Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary” 1558: Died Elizabeth I 1559: new Supremacy Act, splitting England again from Vatican Persecuted Catholics to stay in power 1603: Died

20 The Counter-Reformation (aka: the Catholic Response) 1.Council of Trent 2.The Society of Jesus (“Jesuits”) 3.The Inquisition 4.The Index: list of book prohibited by the Church  First version included works by Luther, Calvin, Galileo, Kepler, etc.  Most recent version of the Index (the 20 th ) was published in 1966! 1.Council of Trent 2.The Society of Jesus (“Jesuits”) 3.The Inquisition 4.The Index: list of book prohibited by the Church  First version included works by Luther, Calvin, Galileo, Kepler, etc.  Most recent version of the Index (the 20 th ) was published in 1966!

21 The Council of Trent Pope Paul III saw need for reform The Council of Trent met three times over three decades Stopped some spread of Protestant Reformation By 1650 at least half of all Protestants had reconverted! Pope Paul III saw need for reform The Council of Trent met three times over three decades Stopped some spread of Protestant Reformation By 1650 at least half of all Protestants had reconverted!

22 Catholic Reforms (?) No compromise with Protestants Mass still in Latin Idea that salvation required faith and good works kept Still sold indulgences, just limited the number you could buy each year Reformed the priesthood Ended abuses of power and corruption within the clergy Established seminaries to educate priests Strongly supported papal power and strengthened the authority of the Pope No compromise with Protestants Mass still in Latin Idea that salvation required faith and good works kept Still sold indulgences, just limited the number you could buy each year Reformed the priesthood Ended abuses of power and corruption within the clergy Established seminaries to educate priests Strongly supported papal power and strengthened the authority of the Pope

23 The Society of Jesus Founded by Ignatius of Loyola after he was wounded in battle Made vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the Pope and Church Insisted on high levels of education for the clergy, hoping this would deal with the issues in the Church Known for work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits, missionary work, and promotion of social justice Boston College is home to one of the world’s largest Jesuit communities! Founded by Ignatius of Loyola after he was wounded in battle Made vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the Pope and Church Insisted on high levels of education for the clergy, hoping this would deal with the issues in the Church Known for work in education, intellectual research, cultural pursuits, missionary work, and promotion of social justice Boston College is home to one of the world’s largest Jesuit communities!

24 F.Y.I. Pope Francis is the first Jesuit pope!

25 The Inquisition Intended to stop heresy Heresy: opinions that differed from those of the Church Inquisitors could remove priests from office, not allow certain things to be said or printed, call in help from armies, and punish heretics Only pope could pardon, didn’t happen often Countries asked to help with Inquisition France refused Spain very involved Burnings common throughout Italy, especially in Rome Intended to stop heresy Heresy: opinions that differed from those of the Church Inquisitors could remove priests from office, not allow certain things to be said or printed, call in help from armies, and punish heretics Only pope could pardon, didn’t happen often Countries asked to help with Inquisition France refused Spain very involved Burnings common throughout Italy, especially in Rome No one expects the Spanish Inquisition!

26 It’s about more than just religion though! Conflict between England and Spain Between 1540’s and 1580’s: England and Spain fighting Spain’s King Philip II (married to Bloody Mary and hoped to marry Elizabeth I) planned to invade England to stop the expansion of the Protestantism Elizabeth’s navy defeated the much larger Spanish Armada. The loss of almost the entire Spanish fleet opened passage to the New World to England, France, and the Netherlands Conflict between England and Spain Between 1540’s and 1580’s: England and Spain fighting Spain’s King Philip II (married to Bloody Mary and hoped to marry Elizabeth I) planned to invade England to stop the expansion of the Protestantism Elizabeth’s navy defeated the much larger Spanish Armada. The loss of almost the entire Spanish fleet opened passage to the New World to England, France, and the Netherlands

27 Results of the Reformation Christianity divided Growing doubt about Church amongst common people Individualism and secularism grew Over 100 years of religious warfare began Germany politically weakened (Remember Emperor sided with the Church and the Princes sided with Luther) Pope’s power increased through Catholic Reformation Christianity divided Growing doubt about Church amongst common people Individualism and secularism grew Over 100 years of religious warfare began Germany politically weakened (Remember Emperor sided with the Church and the Princes sided with Luther) Pope’s power increased through Catholic Reformation Ending on a HAPPY note

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29 The Spread of Religion Worldwide (2003)


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