Presentation on theme: " Absolutism and the Age of Kings England 1.How did the Age of Kings bring about social political and economic change in England? 2. How did Age."— Presentation transcript:
Absolutism and the Age of Kings England 1.How did the Age of Kings bring about social political and economic change in England? 2. How did Age of Kings in England influence the modern world? 3. Why did England never develop a true absolute monarchy?
First concept of “limited’ government First document to limit the power of king It developed the idea of representative government in England-Created Parliament
1509-1547 Henry VIII ruled England. First wife was Catherine of Aragon, had a daughter but no son, she was devoutly Catholic. Henry wanted a divorce, but the Church/Pope would not grant him an annulment Henry persuaded Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy that made him the head of the Church of England (Protestant Church- Anglican)
Henry marries Anne Boleyn after he annuls marriage to Catherine, as head of Church he is allowed to do so. Has a daughter Elizabeth with Anne, but no son, and after a false pregnancy or miscarriage, Henry tired of Anne’s disobedience and had her beheaded. He then married Jane Seymour who bore him a son named Edward. Jane died two weeks after giving birth
Mr. Thomas Cromwell (Great-great-great grandfather of Oliver Cromwell) arranged King Henry’s next marriage to Anne of Cleves, whom Henry found unattractive and shortly after, Anne agreed to an annulment saying marriage had never been consummated. Mr. Cromwell was executed for arranging marriage, but also for tampering too much in King’s affairs.
Henry married Catherine Howard, cousin of Anne Boleyn on the day Cromwell was executed. Catherine was younger the Henry’s first daughter Mary, and they hated each other. Henry and Catherine’s marriage didn’t last long as it was discovered her chastity had been taken before marriage and she was having an affair. Catherine and those accused of affairs with her were executed.
After Catherine Howards execution, Henry married the wealthy widow Catherine Parr. Catherine Parr was a religious reformer, and wanted to push protestantism in England. But Henry remained conservative. Catherine Parr helped Henry and his daugters reconcile, the Lady Mary and the Lady Elizabeth, and got them restored to the line of succession after their half brother Edward. Henry died in 1547
After Henry’s death Edward ruled for six short years before his death from a long sickness, possibly poisened. Henry’s first daughter Mary or Bloody Mary as she was known ruled the next 5 years 1553- 1558, she got her nickname from persecuting protestants, still angered by her fathers divorce from her mother.
Mary, a devout Catholic, had been angered by Protestant Reformation, as her and her mother had lived a life of exile as her father converted to the Church of England. When she comes to power, she reconciles England with Rome and restores the Church, persecuting Protestants After dieing from an influenza epidemic, her sister Elizabeth took the throne.
Elizabeth I, the virgin queen ruled from 1558- 1603. Elizabeth was Protestant, and although Catholics were persecuted, she was much more civil than her sister Mary. Elizabeth expanded the English world empire, defeated the Spanish armada and helped secure England as the dominant world power during her reign. Because she never married or bore children, the Tudor reign came to an end.
After the death of Elizabeth in 1603, the English throne was passed to her cousin James I of Scotland. Inherits throne Raised protestant, mother catholic Claims divine right Religious conflict-he was Catholic James dies in 1625
Charles I son of James inherits throne Needs money to pursue wars against Spain and France so he must call together Parliament. Parliament gives him taxes but in return he must sign the Petition of Right, a written document laying out certain rights of the English people such as only parliament can tax, rights of the accused and no quartering of troops However, after Charles gets money he dissolves Parliament This leads to Civil War-Starts war with Scottish Calvinists
English Civil War Parliament (led by Oliver Cromwell/Roundheads/puritans) vs. the King (loyalists/Cavaliers/anglicans) Parliament wins the war and beheads Charles I
Cromwell established a military dictatorship in England after the English Civil War. Puritan rule/ very anti-Catholic Led as dictator until death in 1658
Charles II son of Charles I is given throne, and the Stuart monarchy restored in 1660 This is known as Merry Monarch Parliament controlled England Died in 1685
James II (Charles II bother) inherits throne in 1685 after the death of Charles The people feared James who was strongly Catholic. James immediately dissolves Parliament James has a son with his 2 nd wife and now has an heir to throne that will also be raised Catholic England needed a way to get rid of James, and begin planning a conspiracy.
The Glorious Revolution was a conspiracy in 1688 to overthrow James and appoint a new (Protestant) leader in England Called the Glorious Revolution because no blood is shed. Parliament offers the English throne to James II oldes daughter (Mary) and her Husband (William of Orange) Why? They are Protestant William and Mary accept a constitutional Monarchy They sign and accept the English Bill of Rights
King can not suspend laws of Parliament ONLY parliament can tax Freedom of speech for Parliament People of England and Parliament are free to Petition the King/Queen of grievances