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The Irish Republican Army The History of Terrorism as a Strategy of Political Insurgency April 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "The Irish Republican Army The History of Terrorism as a Strategy of Political Insurgency April 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Irish Republican Army The History of Terrorism as a Strategy of Political Insurgency April 2011

2 Where did the Irish Republican Army come from? Historical Roots in Genuine Oppression Economic – land redistribution, famine, race laws Political – various associations with England, protestant maneuvers Social - sectarian identification overwhelming national sentiments Cultural – church opposition and romantic failures

3 One, two, three, four what are we fighting for! In the end, the fight was about a divided nation Divided by Territory Religion/Community Prospects (economic opportunity) Historical perceptions Decency

4 The Irish Divide Richard Clutterbuck sees the Irish divide as having some unique dimensions Mostly Urban fighting, but significant rural dimension Fighters were working class Absence of political ideology Deep historical roots to the communal violence Both communities behave like embattled minorities

5 Deep origins – from 1014 to 1912 Patchwork Kingdoms of 1014 gave way to Normans extending some control in 1300s, but by the end of the 15 th century English control was lost (for a little while)

6 The English Take Control 17 th century wars 1556 to 1641- Plantations 1641 to 1653 – famine and repression 1689 to 1691 – Civil War 1798 – Wolf Tone and the first Ulster Volunteer Force 1886 & 1893 Home Rule bills fail

7 Predecessors and Catalysts United Irishmen (1798/1803) Young Irelanders (1848) Irish republican Brotherhood (1867) Fenians The Ulster Volunteer Force then the Irish Volunteers

8 The Irish Republic Ulster Volunteer Force (1912) Easter Uprising (1916) War of Independence The Irish Free State Killing Michael Collins

9 The Official IRA IRA is opposed to everybody after 1922 Border Campaign 1956-62 Rise of the Marxists 1965 Political Process between North and South develops Rioting 1965 to 1969 1966 UVF 1969 Provisional IRA forms

10 The Ulster Volunteer Force UVF (1966-2007?) Protestant Organized to oppose Catholic rights marches Theoretically to counter the IRA 451 victims, mostly civilian Mostly fringe elements remain after 2007

11 The Provisional IRA 1969-1971 formation Urban Guerillas Bombings and assassinations Segregated Communities De facto Police force for Catholic Neighborhoods British Troops deployed Collapse of Stormont Government Bloody Sunday Politicized prisons Blankets and Bobby Sands Increased cooperation between Great Britain and the Republic of Ireland

12 Towards Peace Effective Police work and the widespread use of informers Less repressive police methods Improve economic conditions and rights for Catholics Cooperation between Irish Republic and Britain Referendum on the Good Friday Agreement The IRA and UVF both opposed the referendums

13 Bloody Sunday Revisited Official Army Position The Paratroopers reacted to gun and bomb attacks from the IRA Witness Accounts (residents, British and Irish journalists) The troops fired at unarmed protestors and those who tried to help Facts 13 civilians died (12 at the site), 13 wounded No guns or bombs were found No troops were injured Saville Inquiry Findings: "The firing by soldiers of 1 PARA on Bloody Sunday caused the deaths of 13 people and injury to a similar number, none of whom was posing a threat of causing death or serious injury.“ No Stones or petrol bombs were used by civilians The Soldiers did not warn the civilians before shooting The soldiers lost control and shot civilians and those who tried to help them

14 Appendix Songs to sing while bombing the British

15 The Patriots Game Come all you young rebels And list' while I sing For the love of one's country Is a terrible thing. It banishes fear With the speed of a flame, And makes us all part of The Patriot Game. Mu name is O'Hanlon And I've just gone sixteen My home is Monaghan And there I was weened. I was taught all my life Cruel England to blame. And so I'm a part of The Patriot Game. 'Tis barely two years SinceI wandered away With the local battalion Of the bold I.R.A. I've read of our heroes And wanted the same To play out my part in The Patriot Game. They told me how Connolly Was shot in the chair His wounds from the battle All bleeding and bare, His fine body twisted All battered and lame, They soon made him part of The Patriot Game. This Ireland of mine Has for long been half free, Six counties are under John Bull's tyranny. And still deValera Is greatly to blame, For shirking his part in The Patriot Game. I don't mind a bit if I shoot down the police, They're lackies for war Never guardians of peace. But yet at deserters I'm never let aim Those rebels who sold out The Patriot Game. And now as I lie with My body all holes, I think of those traitors Who bargained and sold. I'm sorry my rifle Has not done the same, For those quisslings who sold out The Patriot Game.

16 Songs [..] sent the feelers out To shoot the people down. He thought the I.R.A. were dead In dear Old Belfast town, But when he got to Belfast He was seriously delayed By the Fighting First Battalion Of the Belfast Brigade. Chorus Glory! Glory! to Old Ireland, Glory! Glory! to this island, Glory to the memory of the men who fought and fell, "No Surrender" is the war cry Of the Belfast Brigade. We have no costly tenders Nor no unsecures to show, We're at need to defend ourselves No matter where we go, We're out for our Republic, To hell with every State! "No Surrender" is the war cry Of the Belfast Brigade.

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