Russian Government Before Revolution ► Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar) ► Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were unlimited. ► Russia had no constitution, ► no political party system to check the Tsar's power ► A strong secret police which terrorized the people.
Czar Alexander II He implemented important reforms, notably the abolition of serfdom,He implemented important reforms, notably the abolition of serfdom, In 1867, he sold Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to the United States.In 1867, he sold Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to the United States. Killed by the Revolutionary Group: The People’s WillKilled by the Revolutionary Group: The People’s Will
Czar Alexander III Alexander III's reign was during an industrial revolution in Russia.Alexander III's reign was during an industrial revolution in Russia. His reign was harsh, against revolutionaries and other liberal movements.His reign was harsh, against revolutionaries and other liberal movements.
Pre-Revolutionary Russia ► Only true autocracy left in Europe ► Nicholas II became Tsar in 1884 ► Believed he was the absolute ruler anointed by God
Russo-Japanese War (1904) Dispute over Manchuria with Japan Shook national confidence in their progress and rule of Czar.
The Revolution of 1905 The Revolution of 1905 ► Russia’s losing fight had people revolting due to unrest. ► The creation of a discontented working class ► Vast majority of workers concentrated in St. Petersburg and Moscow ► Help from the countryside: poor peasants ► No individual land ownership
EVENTS OF 1905 Bloody Sunday ► 200,000 workers march on czar’s winter palace ► Troops fire on crowd, 1,000 + killed Creation of Duma ► First parliament of Russia ► Czar forced to share power; dissolved it after 10 weeks
Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905) The Czar’s Winter Palace in St. Petersburg Marchers Officer
The Duma ► Created in 1905 ► like U.S. House of Reps. ► Oversee the power of the czar
Before the War ► Tsar Nicholas II – ineffective leader ► Nation isn’t very modern ► Most people are poor farmers.
Adaptation of Marxist ideas of overthrow of capitalism Wanted elite group to keep much of power over Russia As Russia’s problems grew more serious, Bolsheviks gained more followers Czar Nicholas hoped World War I would cause people to rally to his leadership Bolshevik Plan Russia a troubled nation Czar Nicholas II had promised reform after 1905 revolution, but delivered little real change Bolsheviks sought to change life through revolution, wanted to overthrow czar Led by Lenin, wanted proletariat to rule Russia as socialist country The Years Before the War Russia and World War I
Russia in World War I ► At the start of the war, Russia had an enormous army of some 6 million soldiers. Outbreak of fighting caused patriotism, rush to join military Otherwise Russia ill-prepared for war –Factories unable to produce supplies quickly –Transportation system weak –Equipment outdated Preparations for War Many Russian officers advanced on connections, not ability Some initial successes on battlefield Losses soon outnumbered victories Millions of Russian soldiers wounded, killed during early battles On the Battlefield
World War I: “The Last Straw” ► Russian Army was being beaten badly. ► Lack of food for the soldiers and for the entire nation. ► Many soldiers are beginning to desert. ► Average peasant has very little invested in the War
Conditions Grow Worse Czar Nicholas II took personal command of forces, 1915 ► Move made little sense since he knew little of military matters ► Czar’s fate became linked with fate of Russian armed forces ► Bad situation grew worse under Czar’s command Russian army seemed doomed ► Central Powers were able to stop Russian offensive ► Destroyed Russian soldiers’ faith in leadership ► Army had little strength, even less confidence Conditions in Russia worse than on battlefield ► Food, goods scarce; peasants grew desperate ► Unpopular Czarina relied on Grigory Rasputin, viewed as corrupt, immoral ► Shaky support for Russian monarchy dipped even lower
The Power Behind the Throne ► Scandals surrounding Rasputin served to discredit the monarchy ► Alexandra was more blindly committed to autocracy than her husband
The Collapse of the Imperial Government ► Nicholas leaves for the Front—September, 1915 ► Alexandra and Rasputin throw the government into chaos ► Alexandra and other high government officials accused of treason
The Collapse of the Imperial Government ► Rasputin assassinated in December of 1916 ► Refusal to receive assistance of the Russian middle class ► Complete mismanagement of the wartime economy
NICHOLAS II’s MISTAKES ► Brought Russia into WWI ► Moved Headquarters to front in WWI ► Czarina Alexandra given power; she became influenced by Rasputin ► Rasputin was freaky, crazy, and corrupt ► People poor and starving; lots of unrest
The Two Revolutions of 1917 ► The March Revolution (February) ► The November Revolution (October) Trotsky ? (April 1917) (After 1924)
March Revolution ► Feb. 1917 – Riots break out in Petrograd / Soldiers refuse to fire on the rioters. Royal palace is taken over. ► March 1917 – Tsar Nicholas II forced to give up power. Czar abdicates ► Provisional government (Duma) takes control lead by Alexander Keresnky ► Provisional government unpopular after decision to stay in WWI
PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Temporary Government Led by: Alexander Kerensky But the Provisional Government did not have as much power as the…
► Formed by social revolutionaries ► Local councils in cities ► Consisted of workers, peasants, and soldiers
MISTAKES OF PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Biggest mistake: kept Russia in World War One Also, did not help workers or peasants with food and fuel shortages Lost all support!
OCTOBER REVOLUTION Led by: Vladimir Lenin, leader of Bolshevik Party (Communists!) His slogan: “Peace, Land, and Bread” ► Bolshevik Red Guards took over gov’t offices; arrested Prov. Gov’t leaders ► Bolsheviks in power November 1917
What happened to Tsar Nicholas? ► July 1918 – Bolsheviks murder him and his entire family (wife and 5 children).
► All farmland distributed to peasants ► Factories controlled by workers ► End Russia’s involvement in WWI Treaty of Brest-Litovsk –pulls Russia out of the war gives up territory ► Gained many opponents, leading to Russian Civil War
RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR 1918-1920 RED ARMY ► Bolsheviks (Communists!) ► Led by…Leon Trotsky WHITE ARMY ► Opponents of Bolsheviks in Russia; western nations like the USA
RESULTS OF THE CIVIL WAR ► Red Army crushes all opposition to Bolshevik rule ► Russian economy destroyed: no trade or industrial production
BOLSHEVIKS BECOME KNOWN AS… THE COMMUNIST PARTY (still led by Lenin)
THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY 1921 To help Russia recover from the war Lenin allowed for a little bit of capitalism ► Peasants could sell surplus (extra) crops for profit ► Individuals could buy and sell goods for profit ► Some small factories, farms, and businesses allowed
NEW COUNTRY ► Lenin organized Russia into self-governing republics ► Central Government controlled them! ► 1922: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) ► Capital: Moscow ► Lenin had created a “Dictatorship of the Communist Party” ► This becomes known as Leninism