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Chapter 13: The Great War 1914-1918. CHAPTER 13, SECTION 1 Marching Toward War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13: The Great War 1914-1918. CHAPTER 13, SECTION 1 Marching Toward War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13: The Great War

2 CHAPTER 13, SECTION 1 Marching Toward War

3 Rising Tensions In Europe: The Rise of Nationalism Nationalism was causing both unification within countries and competition among nations A rivalry developed between Europe’s Great Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France

4 Rising Tensions In Europe: Imperialism and Militarism The quest for colonies also caused competition in Europe By 1914, all of the Great Powers (except Britain) had large standing armies and engaged in militarism- the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war

5 Tangled Alliances: Bismarck Forges Early Pacts Germany’s prime minister, Otto von Bismarck saw France as the greatest threat to peace Bismarck formed the Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1879, and Italy joined in 1882 making the Triple Alliance Bismarck also signed a treaty with Russia in 1881

6 Tangled Alliances: Shifting Alliances Threaten Peace In 1890, Kaiser Wilhelm II forced Bismarck to resign Wilhelm let the treaty with Russia lapse and Russia then formed an alliance with France Germany began building a large navy, causing Great Britain to enter into an alliance with France and Russia in 1907, called the Triple Entente By 1907 Europe has the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) and the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, and Russia)

7 Crisis in the Balkans: A Restless Region By the early 1900’s the Ottoman empire was in decline and new nations such as Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia formed In 1908, Austria took over Bosnia and Herzegovina, arising huge tensions between Austria and Serbia

8 Crisis in the Balkans: A Shot Rings Throughout Europe On June 28, 1914 the heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were shot in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia The assassin was Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian and member of the Black Hand, a secret society to rid Bosnia of Austrian rule

9 Crisis in the Balkans: A Shot Rings Throughout Europe Austria used the murder as an excuse to punish Serbia They issued Serbia several ultimatums to avoid war, and Serbia worked to negotiate On July 28, 1914 Austria rejected negotiations and declared war on Serbia, beginning World War I

10 CHAPTER 13, SECTION 2 Europe Plunges into War

11 The Great War Begins In response to Austria declaring war, Russia (Serbia’s ally) mobilized towards Austria and Germany Germany declared war on Russia on August 1, 1914 and then on France two days later Great Britain then declared war on Germany

12 Nations Take Sides By mid-August 1914, the Central Powers (Germany, Austria- Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria) were pitted against the Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy and Japan) and troops began marching off to war

13 The Conflict Grinds Along By the fall of 1914, the war turned into a bloody stalemate in Northern France along the Western Front Germany developed a plan for fighting a two-front war known as the Schlieffen Plan, which called for defeating France in the west and then rushing east to fight Russia When Germany lost the First Battle of the Marne to France on September 5, 1914, the Schlieffen Plan was ruined

14 War in the Trenches By early 1915, both sides dug miles of trenches to protect against enemy fire, known as trench warfare The space between trenches was known as “no-man’s land” The slaughter reached a peak in by November, each side had reached more than a half- million casualties

15 The Christmas Truce On Christmas Eve, 1914, along the Western front of the war, troops began to sing Christmas carols from their trenches On Christmas day, German troops left the trenches and walked across “no man’s land” to wish the Allied troops a Merry Christmas Both sides left the trenches and exchanged presents of cigarettes and food The next day, fighting resumed

16 The Battle on the Eastern Front The Eastern Front was along the German/Russian border Russian forces launched attacks into Austria and Germany at the beginning of the war By August, Germany counterattacked and more than 30,000 Russians were killed in the 4 day battle Russia defeated Austria early on, but Austria drove them out by December 1914

17 Russia Struggles By 1916, Russia’s military was near collapse The Russian army was continually short on supplies as a result of not industrializing The biggest advantage Russia had was its large population They continued to send troops to the front, and suffered staggering losses

18 CHAPTER 13, SECTION 3 A Global Conflict

19 War Affects the World World War I was more than just a European conflict Australia and Japan entered the war on the Allies’ side, while India supplied troops to their British rulers None of these alliances did much to end the slow conflict

20 The Gallipoli Campaign The Allies decided to attack the area known as the Dardanelles in the Ottoman empire to capture the capital, Constantinople This was called the Gallipoli Campaign, and began in February 1915 Both sides dug trenches and Gallipoli turned into another bloody stalemate The Allies pulled out in December 1915 after suffering about 250,000 casualties

21 Battles in Africa and Asia In parts of Africa and Asia, German colonies came under attack and the Allies won three of four German colonies in Africa, as well as their Pacific island colonies The British and French used their colonies to help supply troops and labor

22 America Joins the Fight In January 1917, Germany announced it would sink any ship in the waters around Britain. This policy was called unrestricted submarine warfare, and Germany sank several American ships In the Zimmerman note, Germany said it would help Mexico “reconquer” land lost to the U.S. in return for an alliance The telegram was intercepted, and on April 2, 1917, the U.S. declared war on Germany

23 Governments Wage Total War World War I soon became a total war, meaning countries devoted all resources to the war effort Factories produced munitions and equipment, and every citizen was put to work Governments turned to rationing- limiting the amount of goods people can buy In order to keep up morale, countries also produced propaganda, or one-sided information designed to keep up support for the war

24 The Influenza Epidemic In spring of 1918, a deadly strain of influenza emerged in England and India, called the Spanish Flu By the fall, it spread through Europe, Russia, Asia, and to the United States 20 million people died worldwide

25 Women and the War Governments turned to women to help keep production at home going Women worked in factories, offices, and shops Many women worked on the front lines as nurses and for the Red Cross

26 The Allies Win the War: Russia Withdraws By 1917, 5.5 million Russian soldiers had been wounded, killed, or taken prisoner The Russian army refused to fight any longer In March 1918, Russia offered Germany a truce and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

27 The Allies Win the War: The Central Powers Collapse Russia’s withdrawal from the war allowed Germany to send all forces to the Western front By May 1918, the German army was only 40 miles from capturing Paris, but they were weak The Allies launched a huge counterattack at the Second Battle of the Marne, and crushed the Germans Germany signed an armistice ending World War I on November 11, 1918

28 The Legacy of the War About 8.5 million soldiers died in WWI and another 21 million were wounded The total combined cost of the war was $338 billion Thousands of miles of homes, farmland, and entire cities were destroyed in Europe

29 CHAPTER 13, SECTION 4 A Flawed Peace

30 The Allies Meet and Debate Delegates of 32 countries attended the Paris Peace Conference at Versailles in January 1919 The meeting’s major decisions were made by the Big Four: Woodrow Wilson (U.S.), Georges Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (Britain), and Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

31 Wilson’s Plan for Peace In January 1918 during the war, Wilson drew up a series of peace proposals called the Fourteen Points The idea behind the Fourteen Points was self- determination, or allowing people to decide their government for themselves The last point proposed an association of nations to negotiate world conflicts peacefully

32 The Versailles Treaty The Treaty of Versailles between Germany and the Allied powers was signed June 28, 1919 The treaty adopted Wilson’s fourteen point and created a League of Nations Germany lost territory and gained severe military restrictions Through Article 231, or the “war guilt clause”, sole responsibility for the war was placed on Germany Germany had to pay reparations to the Allies and their colonies were taken away

33 New Nations and Mandates The Allied powers signed treaties with the other defeated nations including Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire These treaties led to huge land losses, and many new countries were created. Austria-Hungary was also disbanded

34 “A Peace Built on Quicksand” The Treaty of Versailles did little to build a lasting peace The U.S. rejected the treaty and signed a separate one with Germany The Treaty of Versailles left a legacy of bitterness and hatred with the German people Some Allied powers were upset they didn’t gain more land


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