Presentation on theme: "Colonization of Georgia. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What were the reasons for Georgia’s settlement? Who contributed to the establishment of the Georgia colony?"— Presentation transcript:
Colonization of Georgia
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What were the reasons for Georgia’s settlement? Who contributed to the establishment of the Georgia colony? Who were the malcontents and what affect did they have on the Georgia colony?
STANDARDS SS8H2 The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history. a. Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity, economics, and defense), Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah. b. Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida. c. Explain the development of Georgia as a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, government, and the impact of the royal governors.
The English established colonies on North America’s Atlantic coast throughout the 1600s. The goals of the colonists varied, from religious mission, gaining wealth to bettering their lives.
Great Britain wanted raw materials from the New World’s colonies, which it would manufacture into finished goods and sell to other countries. This was mercantilism.
By 1686, as the English colonies reached as far south as South Carolina, the Spanish retreated from Guale to St. Augustine, Florida. Great Britain wanted a “buffer” colony to protect the English colonists from Spanish Florida.
The English Influence in the Georgia Colony The French began colonizing the Gulf coast and parts of Alabama. England began worrying about the French and Spanish threats to its colonial claims.
Who Was James Oglethorpe? Born in London in 1696 Member of an Influential Family Well Educated Wealthy Cared Greatly for People in Trouble Tried to Find Ways to Help Them Member of Parliament’s House of Commons
Why did Oglethorpe want to form a new colony? James Edward Oglethorpe and 20 other influential men in Great Britain made a plan to create a new colony for the working poor. They envisioned a colony for people who faced jail time for bad debts.
silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semi- tropical fruit What products did James Oglethorpe promise to send back to England?
Why Was Georgia Created? DefenseEconomicsCharity Religion = Unofficial Reason
CHARTER OF 1732 WHO: King George II, James Oglethorpe, 20 trustees, total of 115 colonists WHAT: Document to start a colony in Georgia WHEN: 1732 WHERE: All land between Altamaha and Savannah Rivers to the south seas, Town of Savannah on Yamacraw Bluff WHY: 1) protection from Spanish, French, and Native Americans, 2) provide resources for Britain, 3) populate the colony with “worthy poor”
In 1732, King George II created a charter allowing 21 Trustees, including Oglethorpe, to create a Georgia colony and oversee it for 21 years. King George II Who was Georgia named after?
It included the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extended west to the Pacific Ocean.
Georgia’s Charter 6,000 Words Many Limits...document establishing Georgia as a colony
Trustees Could Not... Be Given Money for their Work Own Land Hold Political Office
WHO COULD NOT BECOME COLONISTS? Papists (Catholics) Blacks Liquor Dealers Lawyers
The Colony Belonged to the Crown!!!!
The First Georgia Colonists Debtors & Prisoners
The First Georgia Colonists Carefully Investigated Promised 50 acres of land, tools, and enough food for 1 year If they could pay their own way, received 500 acres of land and permission to take 10 indentured servants.
In Exchange.... They Agreed to... Defend the New Colony Land Could Not Be Sold Farm the Land Grow Mulberry Trees on Portion of Land Obey all regulations established by the trustees.
Between 114 and 125 settlers sailed from England on the ship Ann in 1732.
Tomochichi Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians.
Yamacraw Bluff Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony.
Who was Mary Musgrove? Daughter of a white trader and an Indian woman from a powerful family of the Creek nation. Served as an interpreter between James Oglethorpe and the Native Americans. She and her first husband, John Musgrove, established fur trade with the Creeks. Instrumental in the peaceful founding of Savannah.
New Colonists Arrive in Georgia Forty original settlers died in the first year. In 1733, 42 Jews were allowed to settle in Georgia, including a much-needed doctor.
City of Savannah Yamacraw Bluff became Savannah. Oglethorpe designed the city. Built using connected neighborhoods and squares Each lot was of equal size. The lots were arranged in a repeating pattern.
Soon, other colonists start coming too…
The Salzburgers A group of German protestants were forced to leave Salzburg, which was controlled by the Catholics. They settled in a town called Ebenezer (Rock of Help), about 25 miles from Savannah.
Why did the Salzburgers move from their original location? They worked hard, spoke a different language, and stayed to themselves. Three years later, they moved to Red Bluff and settled a new town called New Ebenezer (along the Savannah River) because the land at Ebenezer was marshy with poor soil for crops. They opposed slavery in the colony.
SALZBURGERS Whatever you forget about the Salzburgers between now and the CRCT, at least remember this… The Salzburgers were Protestant Christians who were kicked out of Catholic controlled Germany and wanted religious freedom in Georgia.
Highland Scots Recruited by Oglethorpe to provide defense for Georgia. Very capable soldiers Built a fort at Darien –Fort King George
HIGHLAND SCOTS key points Came to Georgia in 1736 from Scotland Built the town / fort of Darien south of Savannah along the Altamaha River Protected the Georgia colony from Spanish Florida – helped Oglethorpe push the Spanish out of Georgia in the Battle of Bloody Marsh Changed from farming to cattle raising and harvesting timber Opposed slavery in the colony
In 1721, the English established Fort King George at the mouth of the Altamaha River, near today’s Darien. The fort was a “warning point” for invaders from Spanish Florida. The fort was abandoned after six years.
HIGHLAND SCOTS SUMMARY Whatever you forget about the Highland Scots between now and the CRCT, at least remember this… The Highland Scots were soldiers who colonized Georgia by creating the town of Darien and helped defend the colony from the Spanish during the Battle of Bloody Marsh.
More Settlers... Oglethorpe and Chief Tomochichi returned from a trip to England in 1736 with 300 more settlers. Religious leaders John and Charles Wesley also arrived in Georgia.
War of Jenkin’s Ear The War of Jenkin’s Ear broke out between Great Britain and Spain in Several years earlier, Spanish sailors were said to have cut off the ear of Robert Jenkins, a British seaman, to serve as a warning to British ship captains smuggling goods off the Florida coast.
Oglethorpe welcomed the war! He wanted to invade Florida. Oglethorpe organized an army of about 2,000 men with plans to capture Spanish forts in Florida. Spain’s well-organized militia met Oglethorpe and his men in a surprise attack and forced the Georgians, South Carolinians, and their Indian allies to retreat to St. Simon’s Island.
The Battle of Bloody Marsh Assisted by the Highland Scots, Oglethorpe was able to defeat the Spanish. They waited in the dense woods along the marshes of St. Simon’s Island and took the Spanish by surprise. Georgia’s southern border was protected.
Georgia’s Colonists Become Discontent
South Carolina used slave labor to successfully grow rice, tobacco, and cotton on large plantations. Farmers in Georgia wanted the same “success” that South Carolina farmers had.
Regulations enforced by Oglethorpe did not allow: rum trade buying large tracts of land use of slave labor
Malcontents Those who complained about the policies of the Trustees. Arrived without assistance and did not have the same loyalty to the colony's founders. Could afford to purchase slaves and vast tracts of land and felt the policies of the Trustees prevented them from realizing their economic potential.
Why was the vision of the trustees for Georgia never fulfilled?
Dissension caused many Georgians to move to places where they could basically live as they wished.
By 1742, Georgians were allowed to buy and sell rum. Slavery was introduced in 1750.
The colony named for King George II was changing.
Oglethorpe left the Georgia colony for England in 1743 and never returned.
The Post- Oglethorpe Era Begins
Three different men served as president of the Georgia colony from the time Oglethorpe left the colony until 1754: William Stephens Henry Parker Patrick Graham
In 1752, one year before the initial 21-year charter was to expire, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II. It became a royal colony.
Trustee Colony Board of Trustees Ruled Colony Land Ownership Restricted to 50 acres, plus a town lot for colonists on charity No Established Church (Freedom of Religion Except for Catholics) Slavery Prohibited Royal Colony King Ruled Colony Limits on Land Ownership Removed. Colonists could buy and sell land; women could inherit land; plantations began to grow rice, cotton, and tobacco Anglican Church (Church of England) Slavery Allowed
Who became the first royal governor of Georgia? John Reynolds Introduced the idea of self-government Bicameral legislature was set up Set up a court system French and Indian War began while he was governor Became unpopular because he tried to run Georgia by himself Suggested moving Savannah recalled at the end of 1756
2 nd Royal Governor =Henry Ellis established a sound foundation for government Set up a budget and regulated trade with the Indians The colony made economic gains under him He helped improve the relationship of the colony with the Creek Indians
3 rd Royal Governor = James Wright efficient administrator Most popular governor Georgia grew in development The end of the French and Indian War gave Georgia more land under his leadership Was governor for 16 years
Colonial Leaders of Georgia Trustee Period James Oglethorpe Resident Trustee William Stephens President Henry Parker President Patrick Graham President Royal Period John Reynolds Royal Governor Henry Ellis Royal Governor James Wright Royal Governor
What was Georgia’s 1 st Government like? Idea of self-government Bicameral (two houses: Common House of Assembly & Governor’s Council representing 8 parishes both church and British government district) Court System White landowners could vote
In its first 20 years as a colony, Georgia’s population grew to 5,500 people, of which one-third were slaves. Protestants from Europe found safe haven in Georgia.
Treaties with Native Americans and victory over the Spanish settlers in Florida provided security to the Georgia colonists.
Early Georgia Colony Accomplishments The Bethesda Orphans Home was established in Ebenezer. The orphanage later became Bethesda House School, where many of Georgia’s early leaders were educated. The Methodist Church was founded by John and Charles Wesley. The first Sunday School in America is established by the Wesley brothers. A successful court system was established and maintained. Women were able to inherit property.