2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONSWhat were the reasons for Georgia’s settlement?Who contributed to the establishment of the Georgia colony?Who were the malcontents and what affect did they have on the Georgia colony?
3 STANDARDSSS8H2 The student will analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history.a. Explain the importance of James Oglethorpe, the Charter of 1732, reasons for settlement (charity, economics, and defense), Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and the city of Savannah.b. Evaluate the Trustee Period of Georgia’s colonial history, emphasizing the role of the Salzburgers, Highland Scots, malcontents, and the Spanish threat from Florida.c. Explain the development of Georgia as a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, government, and the impact of the royal governors.
4 The English established colonies on North America’s Atlantic coast throughout the 1600s. The goals of the colonists varied, from religious mission, gaining wealth to bettering their lives.
5 Great Britain wanted raw materials from the New World’s colonies, which it would manufacture into finished goods and sell to other countries. This was mercantilism.
6 By 1686, as the English colonies reached as far south as South Carolina, the Spanish retreated from Guale to St. Augustine, Florida. Great Britain wanted a “buffer” colony to protect the English colonists from Spanish Florida.
7 The English Influence in the Georgia Colony The French began colonizing the Gulf coast and parts of Alabama. England began worrying about the French and Spanish threats to its colonial claims.
8 Who Was James Oglethorpe? Born in London in 1696Member of an InfluentialFamilyWell EducatedWealthyCared Greatly for People in TroubleTried to Find Waysto Help ThemMember of Parliament’sHouse of Commons
9 Why did Oglethorpe want to form a new colony? James Edward Oglethorpe and 20 other influential men in Great Britain made a plan to create a new colony for the working poor. They envisioned a colony for people who faced jail time for bad debts.
10 silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semi-tropical fruit What products did James Oglethorpe promise to send back to England?silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semi-tropical fruit
11 Why Was Georgia Created? DefenseEconomicsCharityReligion = Unofficial Reason
12 CHARTER OF 1732WHO: King George II, James Oglethorpe, 20 trustees, total of 115 colonistsWHAT: Document to start a colony in GeorgiaWHEN: 1732WHERE: All land between Altamaha and Savannah Rivers to the south seas, Town of Savannah on Yamacraw BluffWHY: 1) protection from Spanish, French, and Native Americans, 2) provide resources for Britain, 3) populate the colony with “worthy poor”
13 Who was Georgia named after? In 1732, King George II created a charter allowing 21 Trustees, including Oglethorpe, to create a Georgia colony and oversee it for 21 years.King George II
14 It included the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extended west to the Pacific Ocean.
15 ...document establishing Georgia as a colony Georgia’s Charter...document establishing Georgia as a colony6,000 WordsMany Limits
16 Be Given Money for their Work Trustees Could Not...Be Given Money for their WorkOwnLandHoldPoliticalOffice
17 Papists Blacks (Catholics) COLONISTS? BECOME COULD NOT WHO Dealers LiquorLawyers
19 The First Georgia Colonists Debtors & Prisoners
20 The First Georgia Colonists •Carefully Investigated• Promised 50 acres of land, tools, and enough food for 1 year• If they could pay their own way, received 500 acres of land and permission to take 10 indentured servants.
21 In Exchange.... They Agreed to... Defend the New ColonyLand Could Not Be SoldFarm the LandGrow Mulberry Trees on Portion of LandObey all regulations established by the trustees.
22 Between 114 and 125 settlers sailed from England on the ship Ann in 1732.
23 TomochichiOglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians.
24 Yamacraw BluffTomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony.
25 Who was Mary Musgrove?Daughter of a white trader and an Indian woman from a powerful family of the Creek nation.Served as an interpreter between James Oglethorpe and the Native Americans.She and her first husband, John Musgrove, established fur trade with the Creeks.Instrumental in the peaceful founding of Savannah.
26 New Colonists Arrive in Georgia Forty original settlers died in the first year. In 1733, 42 Jews were allowed to settle in Georgia, including a much-needed doctor.
27 City of Savannah Yamacraw Bluff became Savannah. Oglethorpe designed the city.Built using connected neighborhoods and squaresEach lot was of equal size.The lots were arranged in a repeating pattern.
30 The SalzburgersA group of German protestants were forced to leave Salzburg, which was controlled by the Catholics. They settled in a town called Ebenezer (Rock of Help), about 25 miles from Savannah.
31 Why did the Salzburgers move from their original location? They worked hard, spoke a different language, and stayed to themselves. Three years later, they moved to Red Bluff and settled a new town called New Ebenezer (along the Savannah River) because the land at Ebenezer was marshy with poor soil for crops. They opposed slavery in the colony.
32 SALZBURGERSWhatever you forget about the Salzburgers between now and the CRCT, at least remember this…The Salzburgers were Protestant Christians who were kicked out of Catholic controlled Germany and wanted religious freedom in Georgia.
33 Highland Scots• Recruited by Oglethorpe to provide defense for Georgia.• Very capable soldiers• Built a fort at Darien –Fort King George
34 HIGHLAND SCOTS key points Came to Georgia in 1736 from ScotlandBuilt the town / fort of Darien south of Savannah along the Altamaha RiverProtected the Georgia colony from Spanish Florida – helped Oglethorpe push the Spanish out of Georgia in the Battle of Bloody MarshChanged from farming to cattle raising and harvesting timberOpposed slavery in the colony
35 In 1721, the English established Fort King George at the mouth of the Altamaha River, near today’s Darien. The fort was a “warning point” for invadersfromSpanishFlorida.The fortwasabandonedafter sixyears.35
36 HIGHLAND SCOTS SUMMARY Whatever you forget about the Highland Scots between now and the CRCT, at least remember this…The Highland Scots were soldiers who colonized Georgia by creating the town of Darien and helped defend the colony from the Spanish during the Battle of Bloody Marsh.
37 More Settlers...Oglethorpe and Chief Tomochichi returned from a trip to England in 1736 with 300 more settlers. Religious leaders John and Charles Wesley also arrived in Georgia.
38 War of Jenkin’s EarThe War of Jenkin’s Ear broke out between Great Britain and Spain in Several years earlier, Spanish sailors were said to have cut off the ear of Robert Jenkins, a British seaman, to serve as a warning to British ship captains smuggling goods off the Florida coast.
39 Oglethorpe welcomed the war! He wanted to invade Florida. Oglethorpe organized an army of about 2,000 men with plans to capture Spanish forts in Florida.Spain’s well-organized militia met Oglethorpe and his men in a surprise attack and forced the Georgians, South Carolinians, and their Indian allies to retreat to St. Simon’s Island.
40 The Battle of Bloody Marsh Assisted by the Highland Scots, Oglethorpe was able to defeat the Spanish.They waited in the dense woods along the marshes of St. Simon’s Island and took the Spanish by surprise.Georgia’s southern border was protected.
42 South Carolina used slave labor to successfully grow rice, tobacco, and cotton on large plantations. Farmers in Georgia wanted the same “success” that South Carolina farmers had.
43 Regulations enforced by Oglethorpe did not allow: rum tradebuying large tracts of landuse of slave labor
44 Malcontents Those who complained about the policies of the Trustees. Arrived without assistance and did not have the same loyalty to the colony's founders. Could afford to purchase slaves and vast tracts of land and felt the policies of the Trustees prevented them from realizing their economic potential.
45 Why was the vision of the trustees for Georgia never fulfilled?
46 Dissension caused many Georgians to move to places where they could basically live as they wished.
47 By 1742, Georgians were allowed to buy and sell rum By 1742, Georgians were allowed to buy and sell rum. Slavery was introduced in 1750.
48 The colony named for King George II was changing.
49 Oglethorpe left the Georgia colony for England in 1743 and never returned.
51 Three different men served as president of the Georgia colony from the time Oglethorpe left the colony until 1754: William Stephens Henry Parker Patrick Graham
52 In 1752, one year before the initial 21-year charter was to expire, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II. It became a royal colony.
53 Trustee Colony 1732 - 1752 Royal Colony 1752 - 1776 Board of TrusteesRuled ColonyLand Ownership Restricted to 50 acres, plus a town lot for colonists on charityNo Established Church (Freedom of Religion Except for Catholics)Slavery ProhibitedRoyal ColonyKingRuled ColonyLimits on Land Ownership Removed. Colonists could buy and sell land; women could inherit land; plantations began to grow rice, cotton, and tobaccoAnglican Church (Church of England)Slavery Allowed53
54 Who became the first royal governor of Georgia? Introduced the idea of self-governmentBicameral legislature was set upSet up a court systemFrench and Indian War began while he was governorBecame unpopular because he tried to run Georgia by himselfSuggested moving Savannahrecalled at the end of 1756John Reynolds
55 2nd Royal Governor =Henry Ellis established a sound foundation for governmentSet up a budget and regulated trade with the IndiansThe colony made economic gains under himHe helped improve the relationship of the colony with the Creek Indians
56 3rd Royal Governor = James Wright efficient administratorMost popular governorGeorgia grew in developmentThe end of the French and Indian War gave Georgia more land under his leadershipWas governor for 16 years
58 What was Georgia’s 1st Government like? Idea of self-governmentBicameral(two houses: Common House of Assembly & Governor’s Council representing 8 parishes both church and British government district)Court SystemWhite landowners could vote
59 In its first 20 years as a colony, Georgia’s population grew to 5,500 people, of which one-third were slaves. Protestants from Europe found safe haven in Georgia.
60 Treaties with Native Americans and victory over the Spanish settlers in Florida provided security to the Georgia colonists.
61 Early Georgia Colony Accomplishments The Bethesda Orphans Home was established in Ebenezer.The orphanage later became Bethesda House School, where many of Georgia’s early leaders were educated.The Methodist Church was founded by John and Charles Wesley.The first Sunday School in America is established by the Wesley brothers.A successful court system was established and maintained.Women were able to inherit property.