Presentation on theme: "Objectives Students will explore why Europe was on the brink of war in 1914. Students will identify the indirect and direct of the war. Students will discover."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives Students will explore why Europe was on the brink of war in 1914. Students will identify the indirect and direct of the war. Students will discover how warfare changed during WWI. Students will explore how the United States entered the war. Students will explore the issues made the peace process difficult. Students will discern the cost of war.
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One has indeed personally to come under the shadow of war to feel fully its oppression; but as the years go by it seems now often forgotten that to be caught in youth by 1914 was no less hideous an experience than to be involved in 1939 and the following years. By 1918, all but one of my close friends were dead. — J.R.R. Tolkien, forward to The Lord of the Rings
Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Allied Powers (Triple Entente) Great Britain France Russia Serbia Indirect Causes of World War I
In the midst of the tensions with Serbia, archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary decided to visit the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. Serbian Gavrilo Princip assassinated archduke, wife Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia prepared to support Serbia Austria-Hungary ally Germany saw Russia as threat Germany declared war on Russia, ally France The Impact Germany faced war on two fronts: Russia to east, France to west Decided to strike France quickly then move to Russia Began with quick strike into neutral Belgium Attack on neutral country led Great Britain to declare war on Germany Fighting Begins War Breaks Out
Germany’s plan Germany wanted to quickly defeat France, move east to fight Russia Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany doomed its plan The Great War became bloody stalemate Russia enters fighting Russia attacked German territory from the east Russians defeated in Battle of Tannenberg Germany distracted from France, Allies turned on German invaders Early battles Battle of the Frontiers pitted German troops against both French and British Both sides suffered heavy losses Germany victorious Fighting in 1914
“What is this war? It is mud, trenches, blood, rats, lice, bombs, pain, barbed wire, decaying flesh, gas, death, rain, cats, tears, bullets, fear and a loss of faith in all that we once believed in“ Otto Dix
While people on the home front supported their troops, the war in Western Europe was going badly for the Allied Powers. Italy joined Allied Powers, May 1915 Sent forces against Austria-Hungary at border with Italy Series of back-and-forth battles Little progress made The Italian Front Germans planned assault on French fortress, Verdun Believed French would defend fortress at all costs Battle of Verdun meant to kill, injure as many French soldiers as possible 400,000 French casualties in 10 months of fighting, almost as many for Germany The Battle of Verdun Battles on the Western Front
The Third Battle of Ypres Failed French offensive caused rebellion among French soldiers, spring 1917 British began offensive near Ypres, Belgium, site of German attacks Third Battle of Ypres a disaster for British After 3 years of battle, front lines remained virtually unchanged The Battle of the Somme British launched attack in Somme River area to pull German troops away from Verdun Main assault during 1916, but no major breakthrough Both sides lost great number of troops; British suffered nearly 60,000 casualties on the first day of fighting http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-bloodiest-battles-of-world-war-i.php
Armenian Massacre Different conflict elsewhere in Ottoman Empire during Gallipoli Campaign Russia launched attack in Caucasus Mountain region between Black and Caspian seas Home to ethnic Christian Armenians, minority in Muslim Ottoman Empire Use of Force Ottoman leaders claimed Armenians aided Russians Began forcibly removing Armenians from Caucasus, spring 1915 Violence, starvation 600,000 Armenians died in massacre Ottoman leaders accused of genocide, destruction of racial, political or cultural group
By the end of 1916, Russia was once again on the edge of a revolution. As the new year began and conditions in Russia continued to worsen, the Russian people clearly wanted a change. Citizens protested in streets of Petrograd, March 8, 1917 Police, soldiers refused to shoot rioters Government was helpless Revolution Begins Ordered legislature to disband His order defied Citizens, government, military refused to obey Czar Forced to abdicate, March 15, 1917 Czar Nicholas II March revolution known as February Revolution Russian calendar at time 13 days behind New calendar adopted, 1918 Calendar Change The Russian Revolution
Provisional Government Duma established temporary government Led by Aleksandr Kerensky Many unhappy with new leadership Bolshevism Abolish private property Enforce social equality Later known as Marxism-Leninism Bolsheviks Led opposition to Kerensky’s provisional government Wanted fundamental change in government and society Planned Marxist revolution Vladimir Lenin Bolshevik leader forced to live outside Russia Returned, April 1917 Germany hoped Lenin would weaken Russian war effort The Russian Revolution
Kerensky’s final offensive Kerensky ordered final military offensive against Central Powers along Eastern Front, mid-1917 Drive failed and led to widespread rebellion in Russian army Weakened Russian army collapsed Conditions ideal for Lenin Armed Bolshevik factory workers, Red Guard, attacked provisional government, November 1917 Known as October Revolution Kerensky’s government collapsed after nearly bloodless struggle Bolshevik takeover Established radical Communist program Made private ownership of land illegal Land given to peasants Control of factories given to workers Lenin became leader The Bolshevik Revolution
After the Revolution Lenin sought to end Russian involvement in World War I Sent Leon Trotsky to negotiate peace with Central Powers Russia’s army virtually powerless Trotsky had to accept agreement harsh on Russia Russia gained peace, gave up large parts of empire
German leaders knew America entering the war would increase the strength of Allied Powers. Wanted to deal decisive blow to Central Powers before U.S. had time to ready for war Opportunity came with Russia’s withdrawal from war – Russia out by end of 1917 – German troops no longer needed on Eastern front – Could launch new offensive in the west A New German Offensive Launched major assault, March 1918 Made progress, advanced to within 40 miles of Paris High cost to Germany, lost 800,000 troops By June, 1918, U.S. troops arrived in Europe Gave Allies hope, discouraged Germans Assault on West The End of the Fighting
Balance of power shifted Allied forces stopped German assault in Second Battle of the Marne Allies now on the offensive Allies used tanks, aircraft; gained huge amounts of territory End of war Allied forces broke through Hindenburg Line German leaders sought armistice with Allies Other Central Powers also admitted defeat, war ended Germany a defeated force Many Germans gave up without a fight Began to doubt their own power Great turmoil within German ranks German Collapse
The Allied governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied governments and their peoples have been subjected as a result of the war. The Treaty of Versailles, Clause 231 (the 'War Guilt' clause) ) Germany had to pay £6,600 million (called Reparations) for the damage done during the war. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men. In addition, Germany was not allowed to place any troops in the Rhineland, the strip of land, 50 miles wide, next to France. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe. Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
Italy’s leader hoped to gain territory for his nation, but was disappointed to find himself mostly ignored by other leaders during peace talks. Although peace had come to the battlefield, the leaders of the war’s major countries still had to work out a formal peace agreement. This task would prove difficult. Wilson announced his vision of world peace, Fourteen Points Included reduction of weapons, right of people to choose own government Proposed organization of world nations, protect from aggression Wilson’s Vision A Difficult Peace Leaders of four major Allies all had different ideas of peace treaty French wanted to punish Germany, reparations for cost of war British wanted to punish Germany, but not weaken it Allied Goals
League of Nations Organization of world governments proposed by Wilson Established by Treaty of Versailles Other treaties Separate agreements with all defeated Central Powers Made important changes to Europe Main goals Encourage cooperation, keep peace between nations Germany excluded U.S. did not ratify treaty, not member, weakened League Changes in Europe Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire lands broken apart Independent nations created: Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Turkey Aftermath
Movement to create a Jewish state in the Middle East Balfour Declaration favored establishing Jewish state in Palestine Britain created Transjordan from Palestine Mandate Mandates eventually became colonies Zionist movement Former Ottoman lands turned into mandates, territories to be ruled by European powers Syria, Lebanon became French mandates Palestine, Iraq became British mandates European nations supposed to control mandates only until they were able to govern selves Changes in Middle East The Middle East
The Allied governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied governments and their peoples have been subjected as a result of the war. The Treaty of Versailles, Clause 231 (the 'War Guilt' clause ) Germany had to pay £6,600 million (called Reparations) for the damage done during the war. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men. In addition, Germany was not allowed to place any troops in the Rhineland, the strip of land, 50 miles wide, next to France. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map, below). Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.
Country Total Mobilized Forces KilledWounded Prisoners and Missing Total Casualties Casualties as % of Forces ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Russia12,000,0001,700,0004,950,0002,500,0009,150,00076.3 British Empire8,904,467908,3712,090,212191,6523,190,23535.8 France8,410,0001,357,8004,266,000537,0006,160,80073.3 Italy5,615,000650,000947,000600,0002,197,00039.1 United States4,355,000116,516204,0024,500323,0187.1 Japan800,00030090731,2100.2 Romania750,000335,706120,00080,000535,70671.4 Serbia707,34345,000133,148152,958331,10646.8 Belgium267,00013,71644,68634,65993,06134.9 Greece230,0005,00021,0001,00027,00011.7 Portugal100,0007,22213,75112,31833,29133.3 Montenegro50,0003,00010,0007,00020,00040.0 TOTAL42,188,8105,142,63112,800,7064,121,09022,062,42752.3 ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Germany11,000,0001,773,7004,216,0581,152,8007,142,55864.9 Austria-Hungary7,800,0001,200,0003,620,0002,200,0007,020,00090.0 Turkey2,850,000325,000400,000250,000975,00034.2 Bulgaria1,200,00087,500152,39027,029266,91922.2 TOTAL22,850,0003,386,2008,388,4483,629,82915,404,47767.4 GRAND TOTAL65,038,8108,528,83121,189,1547,750,91937,466,90457.5