2Combat in World War ITrench WarfareNew TechnologyWarfare had changed.Powerful artillery guns placed several miles behind from lines—hurled explosive shells onto battlefield.More men killed by artillery fire than any other weapon in WWI.Trenches: protection from the artillery—used machine gun to hold off attackers.No-Man’s Land: space between opposing trenches.April 1915: Germans first used poison gas near Ypres.--fumes caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation.Allies began to use it as well—so both sides developed gas masks.1915: British introduced the armored tank into battle—were not that great
4New Technology WWI marked first use of aircraft in war. It was first and last time that zeppelins were used in combat.Zeppelins: Giant rigid balloons—blimps. The Germans used them to drop bombs on British warships in the North Sea.Airplanes with machine gunsDogfights: average life expectancy of a combat pilot in WWI was about 2 weeks.
5The Americans ArriveWaves of American soldiers (doughboys) marched into the bloody stalemate.Nearly 2 million before war’s end.Fresh and eager, they demoralized the German soldiers.With the Americans arriving, many Germans concluded that the war was lost.
6Winning the War at SeaRussia Leaves the WarNo American troopships were sunk on way to Europe—sent them in CONVOYS.Convoys greatly reduced shipping losses and ensured that a large number of American troops arrived safely in Europe.March 1917: riots broke out in Russia over the government’s handling of the war and the scarcity of food and fuel.Czar Nicholas II—abdicated throne. Beginning of Russian Revolution.Lenin took over and pulled Russia out of the war.
7Americans Enter Combat Germany’s Last OffensiveWhen Americans arrived in France-the French and British wanted to integrate them into their troops.General John J. Pershing commander of AEF—refused to do so and Wilson supported him.One exception: 93rd Infantry Division-African American unit—transferred to the French and became 1st Americans to enter combatOn March 21st, the Germans launched a massive attack along the western front—They pushed deep into the Allied lines and by early June they were less than 40 miles from Paris.American first major attack—captured the village of Cantigny and then blocked the German drive at town of Chateau-Thierry.
8Battle of the Argonne Forest An American offensive was launched in the region between the Meuse River and the Argonne Forest.600,000 troops, 40,000 tons of supplies, and 4,000 artillery pieces for one of the most massive attacks in American history.Attack began on September 26, 1918—by early November the Americans had shattered German defenses and opened a hole on the Eastern flank of German lines.---soon Germans were retreating.
9The War Ends Revolution in Austria-Hungary. Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia declared independence.—governments of AH and OE surrendered to the Allies.Revolution begins in Germany and the emperor steps down.On November 9, 1918, Germany became a republic.Two days later, signed an armistice.
10A FLAWED PEACE Treaty of Versailles: 1. Big 4 Participants: U.S., Britain, France, and Italy2. Russia was not invited—Wilson refused to recognize Lenin’s government.3. Fourteen Points: Wilson’s peace plan.First 5 points: free trade, freedom of the seas, disarmament, etc.Next 8 points: Self-Determination.14th Point: League of Nations: General association of nations.
11Treaty of Versailles Wilson was very popular with many Europeans. Not so much with French and G.B. leaders.They wanted Germany to be punished.G.B. refused to give up its sizable naval advantage.Peace terms were harsh.Most designed to punish and weaken Germany.Reduced their armed forces and not allowed to put troops west of the Rhine River.Specific blame for war.Reparations:$33 billion.
12Treaty of Versailles Self-Determination: -Four Empires were dismantled as a result of WWI-Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German, and Ottoman Empires.9 new nations in Europe: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Yugoslavia.The majority of people in these new countries were from one ethnic group.However, national self-determination was not applied to Germany.Both Poland and Czechoslovakia were given territory where the majority of people were German.Germany was even split in 2 to give Poland access to Baltic Sea.By leaving a large number of Germans living outside of Germany, the Treaty helped set stage for the issues to come…
13PROBLEMS WITH TREATYU.S. Senate Rejects the TreatyDid not address the freedom of seas or free trade.It also ignored Wilson’s goal of fair settlement of colonial claims.However, it did contain Wilson’s major goal: League of NationsWilson refused to take any Republican leaders to the peace conference.Groups formed:1. “irreconcilables”—refused to support the treaty under any circumstances.2. “reservationists”—were willing to support the treaty if certain amendments made to the “League”—wanted it to say that Congress had to approve war”Wilson refused to compromise—US did not sign the treaty.