The two feast prayers: Are performed when the sun has risen (apparently) few meters, that is, about a quarter of an hour after sunrise. They are performed without a call or commencement call to prayer.
Each of them consists of Two Rak`ahs with seven Takbirahs (Allah is the Greatest) after the first Takbirah for entering the state of ritual consecration, and six Takbirahs including the one of standing in the second Rak`ah. Afterwards, the Imam gives two sermons, after ending the prayer.
It is a Sunnah in the feast prayer to: a) Take a bath, use perfume (for men only) and wear elegant clothes
c) Recite the ritual Takbirahs of the Feast at the beginning of the night before the Feast, especially when going to prayer and after the obligatory prayers during the three days following immolation
d) Go to the prayer from one way and return from another
Al-kusuf prayer Al-Kusuf prayer (that of the solar or lunar eclipse): It is two rak`ahs. For each there are two upright standings, two bowings, and two prostrations.
Istisqa’ (rain) prayer: It is like the feast prayer and is held at the same time, but with a sermon after the prayer and a certain invocation.
Confirmed Sunnah prayers: The Sunnah of Al-Fajr: The Prophet (SAWS) said: “The two (Sunnah) rak`ahs at dawn are better than this world and what it contains.” (Reported by Muslim)
And: The Prophet (SAWS) said: “Do not omit them (the two rak`ahs before the Dawn prayer) even if you are driven away by the horses.” (Reported by Ahmad and Abu-Dawud)
`Amr Ibn-Umayyah Ad-Damri (RA) narrated: “We were in the company of the Prophet of Allah (SAWS) during one of his journeys. He overslept abandoning the dawn prayer until the sun had arisen. The Prophet of Allah (SAWS) awoke and said: Go away from this place. He, then, commanded Bilal to call for prayer. He called for prayer.
They (the people) performed ablution and offered two rak`ahs of the dawn prayer (Sunnah prayer). He then commanded Bilal (to utter the iqamah, i.e., to summon the people to attend the prayer). He announced the prayer (i.e., uttered the iqamah) and then led them in the Dawn prayer.” (Reported by Abu-Dawud)
`A`ishah (RA) narrated: “The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) observed two rak`ahs (Sunnah) of the dawn prayer and he shortened them (to the extent) that I (out of surprise) said: Did he recite in them Surah al-Fatihah (only)?” (Reported by Muslim)
Abu-Hurayrah (RA) narrated: “The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) recited in the two (Sunnah) rak`ahs of the dawn (prayer) Surah al-Ikhlas and Surah al-Kafirun.” (Reported by Muslim)
And: The Prophet (SAWS) said: "Whoever misses the two rak’ahs of Fajr (morning) prayer must then perform them after sunrise.“ [At-Tirmidhi]
Al-Witr (odd numbered prayer): The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “Prayer during the night should consist of pairs of rak`ahs, but if one of you fears that the morning is near, he should pray one rak`ah which will make his prayer of odd number for him.” (Reported by al-Bukhariyy)
The Prophet (SAWS) said: “If anyone oversleeps and misses the witr or forgets it, he should pray when he remembers.” (Reported by Ahmad)
The Prophet (SAWS) said: “He who amongst you is afraid that he may not be able to get up at the end of the night should observe witr (in the first part) and then sleep, and he who is confident of getting up and praying at night (i. e., night voluntary prayer) should observe it at the end of it, for the recitation at the end of the night is visited (by angels), and that is excellent.” (Reported by Muslim)
The Prophet of Allah (SAWS) said: “There are no two witr prayers during one night.” (Reported by at-Tirmidhiyy)
Abu-Dawud, an-Nasa`iyy, and Ahmad reported, “The Sunnah is to recite al-A`la and al- Kafirun Surahs in the two rak`ahs of Sunnah performed before the Witr.”
`Abdul-`Aziz Ibn-Juraij (RA) narrated: “I asked `A’ishah, the Mother of the Believers: With which (Surah) the Prophet of Allah (SAWS) used to observe Witr? She said: In the third rak`ah, he would recite Surah al-Ikhlas, Surah al- Falaq, and Surah an-Nas.”
The two Feasts Prayers (`Id Prayers): Allah says: ﴿فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ﴾ [ الكوثر : 2]
This means: “Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him only).” (Al-Kawthar: 2)
Jundub (RA) narrated: “The Prophet performed `Id al-Fitr Prayer while the sun was (apparently) six meters above the horizon and the prayer of `Id al-Adha (of Sacrifice), apparently while the sun was three meters above the horizon.” (Reported by Abu-Dawud)
Al-Kusuf prayer (that of the solar or lunar eclipse): The Prophet (SAWS) said: “The sun and the moon do not eclipse because of the death or life of someone, but they are two signs amongst the signs of Allah. So, if you see them, offer the prayer (of eclipse).” (Reported by al-Bukhariyy and Muslim)
Qabisah al-Hilaliyy (RA) narrated: “There was an eclipse of the sun in the time of the Prophet of Allah (SAWS). He came out bewildered pulling his garment, and I was in his company at Medina. He prayed two rak`ahs and stood for a long time in them.
He then departed and the sun became bright. He then said: There are signs by means of which Allah, the Exalted, frightens (His servants). When you see anything of these signs, then pray as you are praying a fresh obligatory prayer.” (Reported by Abu-Dawud)
Istisqa’ (rain) prayer: Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: “The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) went out wearing old clothes in a humble and lowly manner until he reached the place of prayer. He then ascended the pulpit, but he did not deliver the sermon as you deliver (usually).
He remained engaged in making supplication, showing humbleness (to Allah) and uttering the Takbir (Allah is the Greatest). He then offered two Rak`ahs of prayer as done on the `Id (festival).” (Reported by At-Tirmidh, An-Nasa’i, and Abu Dawud)
`A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated: “The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him), when the rim of the sun appeared, sat down on the pulpit, and having pronounced the Greatness of Allah and expressed His praise, he said: You have complained of drought in your homes, and of the delay in receiving rain at the beginning of its season. Allah has ordered you to supplicate Him and has promised that He will answer your prayer.” (Reported by Abu Dawud )
The Prophet of Allah went out one day to make salatul-istisqa' (rain prayer) and prayed two rak'ahs with us without any adhan (call for prayer time) or iqamah (call for start of prayer). Then, he addressed us and supplicated Allah and turned his face toward the qiblah (the direction of Ka’bah), with his hands raised. Then, he reversed his cloak, placing its left side on his right side and its right side on his left side. [Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and al-Bayhaqiyy].
Istisqa’ invocation: Supplication for rain prayer "O Allah, give us a saving rain, productive, plentiful, general, continuous. O Allah, give us rain and do not make us among the despondent. O Allah, (Your) slaves, land, animals, and (Your) creation all are suffering and seek protection. And we do not complain except to You. O Allah, let our crops grow, and let the udders be refilled. Give us from the blessings of the sky and grow for us from the blessings of the earth.
O Allah, remove from us the hardship, starvation,and barrenness and remove the affliction from us as no one removes afflictions save Thee. O Allah, we seek Your forgiveness as You are the Forgiving, and send upon us plenteous rains. O Allah, give water to your slaves and animals, spread your Mercy and revive your dead country." (Reported by Ibn Majah and Abu-Dawud)
`Abdullah Ibn `Amr Ibn Al-`As (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: When the Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) prayed for rain, he said, "O Allah! Provide water for Your servants and Your cattle, display Your mercy and give life to Your dead land.” (Reported by Malik)