Presentation on theme: "NOTES ON CHAPTER 4 – “NEW ORLEANS”. EARLY HISTORY OF THE CITY founded by France in 1718; sold to Spain in 1763 but “reclaimed” in 1803 cultural life from."— Presentation transcript:
EARLY HISTORY OF THE CITY founded by France in 1718; sold to Spain in 1763 but “reclaimed” in 1803 cultural life from the 18th century, encompassing opera, Mardi Gras, dances, parades, and fancy balls. essentially French in character port city 19th-century commercial center, became the largest, most sophisticated city in the South
SLAVERY AND RACE RELATIONS IN NEW ORLEANS Race relations somewhat “unique” compared elsewhere in US slave trade, but also “more relaxed Caribbean culture” slaves allowed to retain culture, including music. at least a few "free blacks" lived in New Orleans by 1722. From 1817 to about 1840 slaves and free blacks were permitted to dance and play music in a field behind the French Quarter called Congo Square.
CREOLES OF COLOR Persons of mixed ancestry known as Creoles of Color Cultural distinctions French rather than English was primary language Religion – Catholic rather than Protestant Access to formal education (including the arts) privileges and opportunities also included civic power, property ownership, and skilled trades "By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Creoles occupied a position very near the top of the social order and though excluded from certain areas of white interaction, they had created their own social units, equal to and often vastly superior all others in the community.” A few owned cotton and sugar plantations with numerous slaves.
CREOLE MUSICIANS musical performance for many was a "hobby.“ opera and symphonic performances, brass bands. Typically viewed blues-based, improvised music as unprofessional. Creoles got the better-paying jobs playing traditional European dances.
STORYVILLE Alderman Sidney Story, in attempting to confine the trade of prostitution to a limited area, established a 38-block area that became known as Storyville. primarily devoted prostitution and “related businesses.” In August 1917, the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy issued orders forbidding open prostitution within five miles of Army or Navy posts.
RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS AFTER THE WAR Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction eras. changing economic and political circumstances gradually changed the social strata of New Orleans. Public segregation by race re-imposed 1877. "Act 111 of the Regular Session of the Louisiana Legislature" - the first of the so- called "Jim Crow" laws - was enacted in 1890; separate cars were required for black and white patrons traveling first class (led to Plessy v. Ferguson) separate waiting rooms in railroad depot. outlawing of interracial marriages.
ECONOMIC HARDSHIP Both black and white workers experienced economic hardship in the 1880s and 1890s. A huge influx of immigrants competed for available work. industrial machinery replaced large numbers of workers. unions organizing many trade/craftsman positions. Many Creole artisans found themselves completely out of work or operating on a much smaller scale.
EARLY JAZZ ARTISTS - BUDDY BOLDEN Cornet player probable 1 st jazz artist (“inventor of jazz”) loudness of his playing distinctive timbre and attack “seductive” style of playing, particularly slow blues no known recordings “the only musician in that era who was commonly regarded as an innovator of a new way of playing that evolved into jazz.”
FREDDIE KEPPARD Cornet player one of the 1 st New Orleans musicians to travel widely star of the Creole Jazz Band (played vaudeville theaters throughout the US) Alleged to play with a handkerchief over his hand to disguise his technique allegedly refused an opportunity to record in 1916
ORIGINAL DIXIELAND JAZZ BAND played at Reisenweber’s Restaurant in New York in 1917 (probable 1 st jazz group to play extended engagement in New York) “Livery Stable Blues” and “Dixie Jass Band One-Step” probable 1 st jazz recordings relationship between white and black musicians
JELLY ROLL MORTON Pianist, composer, and arranger 1 st jazz composer – proved that the music could be written down falsely claimed to have invented jazz assimilated a number of musical styles 1923 recordings with Gennett Records in Richmond, IN (1 st integrated recording session) fall 1926, Victor recordings with Red Hot Peppers LC recordings with Alan Lomax (1938) died in 1941 just before a revival of interest in NO jazz
JOE “KING” OLIVER Cornet player achieved local fame in band led by trombonist Kid Ory particularly noted for variety of mutes moved to Chicago in 1918; after time on the road, returned in 1922 to form King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band 1923 Gennett recordings introduced Louis Armstrong to the world
SIDNEY BECHET clarinet, later soprano saxophone toured with Will Marion Cook to Europe toured Europe again on his own, returned to NY in 1921 hired briefly by Duke Ellington, but preferred soloist status time spent in Europe may have contributed to relative lack of renown in US