Group 2 Kanice Chau (5) Claudia Chow (8) Amy Chu (9) Vanessa Chung (10) Sammi Lai (14)
※ Factors contributing to the decolonization of Indonesia in the 20 th century i. Colonial Exploitation ii. The impact of western education
A form of regime shift, a changed relationship between the colonial power and the colony A changed power relationship between colonial powers and colonial nationalist movements which arose to assert national self- determination and challenge traditional imperial hegemony. Indonesia e.g. Indonesia Decolonization Level 1 Grant of formal constitutional independence by the departing colonial power. Level 2 The change in government of the new state from bureaucratic- authoritarian government by the colonizing power Level 3 Establishment of a fully independent state freed from economic and cultural dependence on the former colonial power 3 levels of decolonization
Richly endowed with natural resources: -European powers fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Island of Maluku (an archipelago in Indonesia) due to its abundant resources e.g. rice and spices Location Locates on the edge of the Pacific Capital: Jakarta Consists of 17,508 islands 5 largest islands : Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, New Guinea and Sulawesi Palm oil Rice Tea Coffee An important trade region since the 18 th century Spices Rubber Copper Salt Colonial exploitation!
How did colonial exploitation lead to the decolonization of Indonesia in the 20 th century?
Background: Economic Interests (e.g. rich in natural resources,such as oil and rubber) The Dutch occupied Indonesia Indonesia became a Dutch colony in the early 17 th century Stated that each village and higher level community should pay 20% of all of its wealth, including labour, to the colonial masters. The Javanese must grow products exportable to the European market for the Dutch e.g. coffee, sugar, major cash crops of the time, with tobacco and tea later being added later The Dutch demanded that one-fifth of all agricultural land be used for these cash crops. In order to produce these exports more efficiently, the Dutch set up large plantations owned by the government, but nominally controlled by the Javanese nobility. 1.Cultivation System Introduced in 1830, by a new Governor-General, Johannes van den Bosch An agricultural policy of the government concerning the utilization of Java Objective - forced and controlled cultivation in Java How did the system work ? Johannes van den Bosch
Natives were required to work more than in the previous rice production, and there was more supervision burden Heavy work burden Compensation to the workers did not increase with the rising cost of living Indonesians had to work as forced labour to build canals, railroads and military installations for the Dutch Falling living standard for most of the Javanese & discontent grew The Javanese nobility, village chiefs, and colonial overseers, however, made out quite well during this period. They managed to squeeze out the extra land rent and to increase their control over the general populace. Indonesians suffered further hardship Conclusion: Cultivation System Indonesians suffered much economic hardship e.g. poverty of Javanese peasants, famine and epidemics in the 1840s discontent among people made independence more possible How were the Indonesians being exploited under the Cultivation System?
The Dutch established the nascent oil (petroleum) extraction that Indonesians had started already when tin mining was well- developed. Serious exploitation by the Dutch for natural resources e.g. tin and oil since the mid-20 th century All rights of mining minerals and oil continued to be given only with the executive orders by the Dutch government. 2.Monopolization of the growing mining industry Conclusion: Mining industry was monopolized by the Dutch government affected the interests of Indonesians spread of poverty and discontent desire for independence Coal Mining Scene
Reasons for Japanese invasion of Indonesia -To secure its rich natural resources -To feed Japan's war machine Indonesia under the Japanese Occupation e.g. Indonesian supplied 25% of its oil to Japanese for military purpose
How did the Japanese exploit the Indonesians? Repressive Rule & Exploitation of the Japanese Acted as forced Labour T housands of people were taken away from Indonesia as forced labour to work for Japanese military projects, e.g. Burma-Siam Railway suffered ill-treatment and starvation many died Hardship of populace Indonesian who lived in areas considered important to the war effort experienced torture, sex slavery, arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes Japanese invasion and occupation of Kiska Island (one of the small islands in Indonesia) A later United Nations report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labor during the Japanese occupation, including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths
Colonial Exploitation e.g. Economic Exploitation by the Dutch Spread of poverty & people Provoked national feeling of Indonesians Demanded for independence (decolonization)
How did the impact of western education lead to the decolonization of Indonesia in 20 th century?
Background: ※ Failure of the Cultivation System Policies of Cultivation system drastic increase in population (especially in Java) scarcity of land for rice production (owing to the government monopolization of agriculture industry further hardships of Indonesians Ethical Policy by the Dutch ※ ※ Ethical Policy by Dutch in the 900s Objectives: To further the welfare of the Indonesian in both health and educational aspects a)Provided a Dutch education for children of the indigenous Indonesian elite and expanded secondary educational opportunities to them b)Provided clerical labour for the growing colonial bureaucracy c) Western education brought Western political ideas of freedom and democracy to the Indonesians
1925: Provision of a widespread three-year elementary vocational education 1940: -65,000 to 80,000 Indonesian students were in Dutch and Dutch-supported primary schools -Over 2 million students were attending such schools improved the 6.3 % literacy rate recorded in 1930
Creation of a small elite of highly educated indigenous Indonesians promoted the idea of an independent and unified "Indonesia" that would bring the disparate Indonesians together. Impact of the educational reform during the Ethical Reform Period Subandrio Examples of highly educated Indonesians during the reform Hatta During the 1920s and 30s, this small elite began to articulate a rising anti- colonialism and a national consciousness.
Sukarno was an activist who fought for independence under the Dutch in the 1930s, and under the Japanese in the 1940s. Later, he became the first President of Indonesia. President Sukarno casts his vote in the 1955 elections. Indonesian Nationalist: Sukarno Sukarno
An intellectual who was awakened by quality Dutch classical education and her inherent traditional Islamic beliefs and education Provided the impetus and ideology which inspired successive patriotic nationalists to pursue their ideals despite the adversity 5 Rupiah note from 1952, with the portrait of Raden Kartini. Indonesian Nationalist : Raden Kartini
Indonesian National Revival Background: Influence of Indonesia nationalist & well-educated elites Indonesian National Revival 1908 : Indonesian political parties began to emerge A youth group, Budi Otomo, was established 1912 : First national mass movement organized by Sarekat Islam (an Indonesian organization) The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands The Dutch responded with repressive measures after the First World War Nationalists, including Indonesia's first president, Sukarno (1901-70), were imprisoned for their political activities1914: Exiled Dutch nationalist,Henk Sneevliet, founded the Indies Social Democratic Association A small forum formed by Dutch nationalists initially expanded into the Communist Party of Indonesia.
Impact of Western Education Western education Rise of middle classes & nationalists Independence movement Sukarno SubandrioHatta Kartini 1900s: Ethical Policy by the Dutch 1925: Three- year elementary education introduced 1930s: Literacy rate increased by 30% Indonesian National Revolution Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesian Independence on 17 th Aug,1945 The Netherlands recognized Indonesia's independence in 1949. Indonesian National Revival