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Gandhi and Mass Nationalism

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1 Gandhi and Mass Nationalism
Gandhi India

2 Pre-Gandhian Indian Politics
Two Domains of Politics i) Subaltern Domain ii) Organized Constitutional Domain Two Trends within Organized Domain i) Civic Nationalism: Moderate Congress ii) Ethno-Religious Nationalism: Hindu Nationalism and Muslim League led Nationalism

3 First World War and Changing Nature of Indian Politics
Rise of Indian Industries and Economic Nationalism Emergence urban Working Classes and Labor Unrest Economic Crisis and Peasant Discontent Global Experience of Indian Soldiers Congress-Muslim League Unity of 1916 and Pan Islamism Revolutionary Trends Expectations of Reform and Home Rule League Movement

4 Gandhi in South Africa (1893-1915)
Training In England Professional Indian with deeper sensitivities to Racial Insults Fight for the rights of Indian Settlers, primarily Gujarat Muslim Traders Internal Transformation and Philosophy of Ahimsa (Non Violence) The Idea of Satyagraha External transformation from British educated Barrister to Indian Mendicant Symbolizing Peasant Simplicity

5 Gandhi’s Return to India
Gandhi’s all India Appeal Gandhi’s new technique of controlled mass action and impressive display of public action to attract masses Gandhi’ s Silence and his aloofness from the Indian National Congress His travel into India for a year : a voyage of discovery

6 Peasant and Workers’ Movements
Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar in 1917 Kheda Movement in Gujarat in March 1918 Patidar Peasant network and Gandhi’s attempt to consolidate peasant support base Ahmedabad strike among mill workers in March 1918 Rowlatt Act and Opposition to the Act All India strike on 30 March and later postponed to 6 April Gandhi’s connection with Pan-Islamic Groups and Khilafat issue Punjab Rebellion and Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre. Gandhi emerging as all India Leader Rumor of the coming of Mahatma ( Great Soul)

7 Gandhi’s emergence as a leader
Role of Rumor Image of Mahatma Millenarian hopes among peasants and economic hardship Gandhi as the bridge between constitutional and mass politics United Front Strategy A symbol of hope

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