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 As the war went on, acute labour shortages developed. Women filled this need.  Many women became independent for the first time, earning more than.

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Presentation on theme: " As the war went on, acute labour shortages developed. Women filled this need.  Many women became independent for the first time, earning more than."— Presentation transcript:

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2  As the war went on, acute labour shortages developed. Women filled this need.  Many women became independent for the first time, earning more than before (but less than men). However, at war’s end, an attempt was made to return to the pre-war situation.

3  Similarities between GBR & GER - Women gained more freedom (shorter hair, shorter skirts, smoking in public, going out unchaperoned). - Since 10% of males were killed, many found it difficult to marry or remarry. - At war’s end: GBR women over 30 & all women in GER gained right to vote. - Women became involved with politics. - Women contributed to war effort (working, nursing, volunteer work).

4  Differences between GBR & GER - Levels of hardship varied greatly: rationing in GBR -v- starvation & fuel shortages in GER. - Mobilisation rate higher in GER. - Level of independence varied.

5 WAR WORK: BRITAIN  Some objection from men & unions.  Women had 3 kinds of jobs:  those normally done by men (eg. clerks, farming, policing)  War-related industries (60% of munitions workers)  Members of the army auxiliary.  Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) founded They worked in supply, transport, communications. No active duty but had ranks & uniform.

6 WAR WORK: GERMANY  By 1916, worked in many ‘male’ occupations (eg. clerks, train guards, tram drivers, light industry, railway builders & miners).  Dr Gertrude Baumer, head of largest women’s rights organisation, was asked to organise women for war work, which was done better than other nations:  1/3 of Krupp workers female  Sunday no longer a day of rest  10-hour days  Support for war declined after 1916.

7 VOLUNTEER WORK: BRITAIN  Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) to give help to sick & wounded. Unpaid at first, then £20 a yr. Mostly middle/upper class who faced opposition from professional nurses.  Volunteers to work on the land were not enough, so the Women’s Land Army was formed under govt control. VOLUNTEER WORK: GERMANY (no info available)

8 POLITICAL ACTIVITY: BRITAIN  Most suffragettes supported the war & organised to help by running hospitals, etc.  Minority opposed the war, attempted to attend peace conferences & established organisations.  Women’s Peace Crusade (formed July 1916) organised huge anti-war demonstrations, gained some middle class support but actions met with hostility.

9 POLITICAL ACTIVITY: GERMANY  Initially most supported the war.  Rosa Luxemburg, socialist writer & politician was imprisoned.  Even though govt action -v- strikers was savage, women took part.

10 SOCIAL CHANGES: BRITAIN  Some reduction in class barriers as number of domestic servants  & women from middle/working classes mixed through war & volunteer work.  Women from all classes worked; many for 1 st time, proved competent, conflict between men & women, paid less.

11 SOCIAL CHANGES: BRITAIN  Employment led to independence.  Suffrage for women in  Marriage patterns altered: divorces  (300%), man shortage.  More relaxed fashion (skirts, hair) & behaviour (public smoking).

12 SOCIAL CHANGES: GERMANY  Class barriers reduced due to defeat & forced reforms: all women equal in legal/political terms.  Women in towns faced food, clothing & fuel shortages.  By 1920, 11 million women in work. However, most jobs menial, paid less.

13 SOCIAL CHANGES: GERMANY  Universal suffrage in  Divorce rate  due to relaxation of divorce laws, war marriages &  in church attendance.  Social behaviour similar to GBR + single girls out unchaperoned.


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