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The Great Depression & The New Deal U.S. History & The Constitution

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1 The Great Depression & The New Deal U.S. History & The Constitution
Unit 8, Pt. 3 (Ch ) Notes: The Great Depression & The New Deal U.S. History & The Constitution

2 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up
3rd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #8 (5 & 6 Mar) 8.) Which of the following best summarizes what the writers, artists, & poets of the Harlem Renaissance stressed in their works? a.) Endorsing the use of aggressive tactics to combat “Jim Crow”. b.) Recruiting more southern sharecroppers to move to northern cities. c.) Showing pride in the culture of African Americans. d.) Extending the suffrage rights of all African Americans. CORRECT ANSWER: C

3 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator
Standard USHC-6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflict between traditionalism & progressivism in the 1920s & the economic collapse & the political response to the economic crisis in the 1930s. USHC-6.3: Explain the causes & consequences of the Great Depression, including the disparities in income & wealth distribution; the collapse of the farm economy & the effects of the Dust Bowl; limited governmental regulations; taxes, investment, & stock market speculation; policies of the federal government & the federal reserve system; & the effects of the Depression on the people.

4 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- Stock market crash - not the cause of the Great Depression - rather an outward sign of long term problems within the economy. - Crash = signaled start of the Depression; it evolved over a period of years spiraling deeper & deeper until massive government spending during World War II finally ended it. - Economy’s underlying problems: 1.) declining demand & 2.) overproduction. - 1920s seemed prosperous with high employment rates & almost no inflation. - Industrial production & per capita income were both up, however, this was a false prosperity.

5 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- A disparity in incomes & the distribution of wealth was very large & uneven. - Haves vs. Have Nots (majority) - Great majority of Americans lived below the poverty line ($2500 in 1929) - Wages for most workers fell or stagnated during the 1920s, despite increasing productivity. - Companies did not pass their prosperity to their employees & workers could not afford to buy the products they manufactured. When consumers reached their limit of installment payments, they had to stop spending. - Drop in consumer spending led to lay-offs & inability for workers to spend.

6 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- Farm economy collapsed in the 1920s. - Farmers who had prospered in the war years faced international competition & depressed prices as well as debts & taxes. - Farmers defaulted on bank loans = many banks failed before the crash. - Bank failures, in turn, limited the number of loans available for small businesses = could not expand & hire.

7 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- Under the Republican administrations, the federal government abandoned its previous policy of progressivism & limited government regulation of Big Business (Sherman Anti-Trust Act & trustbusting of Teddy Roosevelt). - Laissez-faire attitude = corporations became powerful & tariffs were raised. - Supreme Court overturned limitations on child labor & minimum wage laws for women.

8 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- Income taxes for the wealthy were slashed = didn’t help economy. - Wealthy bought luxury goods & could not make up for the loss of spending power of the great majority of the people. - Their tax savings were put into investments in the stock market rather than in new factories = limited demand for goods. - Stock market investments drove up speculation in businesses that couldn’t sustain profitability in the face of lagging consumer demand.

9 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- End of the 1920s = businesses cut back production = resulted in excessive inventories. - Companies invested their money in stock market speculation rather than in production. - Investors, noting the large inventories, began to reconsider their investments. - Stock market speculation & “get rich quick” mentality led to inflated stock values & a crash.

10 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- Stock market was not regulated; investors were allowed to buy on the margin (allowed to borrow on the paper value of their stock in order to buy more stock) - An unusual number of sell orders kicked the bottom out of the market in October of 1929, & brokerage firms called in their margin loans. - Investors were forced to sell at low prices in order to meet their obligations & as a result stock prices plunged. - Although prominent bankers helped to prop up the market for several days, public confidence was shattered.

11 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- “Black Tuesday,” October 29, 1929: the greatest market “crash” in its history - An event that symbolized the end of the false prosperity of the 1920s. - Economy spiraled deep into a depression made worse by poor decisions of individual companies, consumers, investors, & by the policies of the Federal Reserve.

12 22.1: The Nation’s Sick Economy
- Federal Reserve (est.1913) = nation’s central bank: has capacity to regulate the money supply by making loans to banks, which then make loans to businesses, which hire workers, who buy products. - Early 1920s: the Fed. Reserve pursued easy credit policies. - Charged low interest rates on loans to member banks = helped fuel speculation mania. - Late 1920s: the Fed. Reserve initiated a tight money strategy to try & curb speculation. - The Fed discouraged lending by charging higher Interest rates for their loans. - Post-crash: Fed tightened the money supply more, thus making it even harder to limit effects of the crash. - If the Fed had cut interest rates & expanded the money supply, the Depression may not have been as intense or long lasting. End of 22.1 Notes

13 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression - Government policies did little to halt the downward spiral of the economy. - 1930: Congress passed a high tariff In an effort to protect American industries from foreign competition. - Taxes on imports damaged the economy (depressed international trade). - Foreigners were unable to sell goods in US markets =could not buy American products. - Foreign nations reacted & imposed trade barriers of their own, stifling international trade that further increased the depressed condition of the world’s economies.

14 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression - Pres. Herbert Hoover urged companies to voluntarily maintain wages & hours = impossible in the face of low consumer demand. - Companies laid-off workers & cut hours. - Hoover advocated the American value of “rugged individualism”, urged confidence, & announced that “prosperity is just around the corner.”

15 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression - Great Depression = worst economic disaster to ever hit the U.S. - U.S. had a 25% unemployment rate & no system of unemployment insurance like other western countries. - People were unable to pay mortgages or rent = lost homes & wandered the streets, going from town to town looking for a job or selling apples or pencils door to door. - Job wages & hours were cut. - Those with jobs stopped buying anything but the most essential goods = prices fell further.

16 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression

17 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression The Irony of the Great Depression

18 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression Life in a “Hooverville”

19 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression - Bank “runs” = people tried to withdraw their savings out of fear that the bank would close taking their savings with it. - “Runs” often caused banks to collapse & many investors lost their savings as a result. - Many were undernourished. - Schools closed as communities couldn’t pay teachers; many teachers worked for nothing. - Depression took a terrific toll on families.

20 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression - Marriages were delayed & the birthrate fell. - Divorce rates declined, but many men abandoned their families. - Unemployed men lost status & women & children were forced to work & find whatever small job might feed their families. - States & private charities couldn’t stop the Depression’s suffering - People looked to the federal government for solutions.

21 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression - Dust Bowl affected the western plains & caused additional human tragedy. - The plain’s fragile environment had been damaged by overgrazing. - During WWI, farmers plowed the plains & planted wheat = ruined the sod that held the soil. - 1930s drought & winds blew away the top soil. - Tenant farmers were evicted from the land & became migrant workers, roaming the country in search of work

22 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression

23 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression

24 The Dust Bowl

25 22.2: Hardship & Suffering During the Depression
& 22.3: Hoover Struggles With the Depression - In the election of 1932, the American people demanded help from their government. End of 22.2 & 22.3 Notes

26 Depression Documents Activity

27 Depression Documents

28 “Migrant Mother” Dorothea Lange’s “Migrant Mother” Picture Series.
- February or March 1936 I saw & approached the hungry & desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer & closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, & birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean- to tent with her children huddled around her, & seemed to know that my pictures might help her, & so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it. (From: Popular Photography, Feb. 1960).

29 “Migrant Mother”

30 “Migrant Mother”

31 “Migrant Mother”

32 Depression Documents

33 Depression Documents

34 Depression Documents

35 Depression Documents

36 Depression Documents

37 Depression Documents

38 Depression Documents

39 Depression Documents

40 “In the Big Rock Candy Mountains”
by Harry McClintock Where the rain don't fall The winds don't blow In the Big Rock Candy Mountains. In the Big Rock Candy Mountains You never change your socks And the little streams of alcohol Come trickling down the rocks The brakemen have to tip their hats And the railway bulls are blind There's a lake of stew And of whiskey too You can paddle all around it In a big canoe In the Big Rock Candy Mountains In the Big Rock Candy Mountains, The jails are made of tin. And you can walk right out again, As soon as you are in. There ain't no short-handled shovels, No axes, saws nor picks, I'm bound to stay Where you sleep all day, Where they hung the jerk That invented work In the Big Rock Candy Mountains I'll see you all this coming fall In the Big Rock Candy Mountains One evening as the sun went down And the jungle fires were burning, Down the track came a hobo hiking, And he said, "Boys, I'm not turning I'm headed for a land that's far away Besides the crystal fountains So come with me, we'll go and see The Big Rock Candy Mountains In the Big Rock Candy Mountains, There's a land that's fair and bright, Where the handouts grow on bushes And you sleep out every night. Where the boxcars all are empty And the sun shines every day And the birds and the bees And the cigarette trees The lemonade springs Where the bluebird sings In the Big Rock Candy Mountains. In the Big Rock Candy Mountains All the cops have wooden legs And the bulldogs all have rubber teeth And the hens lay soft-boiled eggs The farmers' trees are full of fruit And the barns are full of hay Oh I'm bound to go Where there ain't no snow

41 Daily “Bell Ringer” Warm Up
3rd Nine Weeks Bell Ringer #9 (7 & 8 Mar) 9.) What natural disaster resulted in a many farmers (including tenants) to leave their farms & move west to California in search of work? a.) Great Migration b.) Charleston Earthquake c.) Great Depression d.) Dust Bowl CORRECT ANSWER: D

42 Today’s Lesson Standard / Indicator
Standard USHC-6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflict between traditionalism & progressivism in the 1920s & the economic collapse & the political response to the economic crisis in the 1930s. USHC-6.4: Analyze President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal as a response to the economic crisis of the Great Depression, including the effectiveness of New Deal programs in relieving suffering & achieving economic recovery, in protecting the rights of women & minorities, & in making significant reforms to protect the economy such as Social Security & labor laws.

43 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - New Deal was not an attempt to introduce socialism in the U.S. - Some historians argue that New Deal policies saved capitalism - New Deal policies alleviated some suffering & offered hope to Americans, but did not solve the Depression’s economic problems. - Government spending during World War II ended the Depression. - Effect of New Deal reforms: U.S. hasn’t suffered another economic depression. of the magnitude of the Great Depression.

44 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - New Deal - consisted of two phases (first New Deal & second New Deal). - First New Deal = the First Hundred Days attempted to stabilize the economy, help it recover & relieve human suffering. - It included some successful & enduring reforms.

45 Unit 9.3 Great Depression & New Deal New Deal “Alphabet Soup”
Small Group Activity

46 V A T Unit 9.3 Great Depression & New Deal New Deal “Alphabet Soup”
Your group is to include the following in your alphabet soup bowl: 1.) Initials for your New Deal Program “floating” in the bowl – (i.e. TVA) 2.) The full title of your New Deal Program on the inside rim of your bowl (i.e. Tennessee Valley Authority) 3.) The year that your program was established (& 1st or 2nd New Deal). 4.) Descriptive symbols/picture that emphasize the purpose of your program (either floating in the bowl or around the bowl itself). 5.) Minimum of 3 bullet statements describing: - Purpose of the program. - Who it did/did not help. - Successes/failures of the program. - Lasting contributions. - Your group will present your bowls to the class. T V A

47

48 Great Depression & New Deal
V A Great Depression & New Deal Alphabet Agencies’ “Alphabet Soup”

49 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Banks closed (bank holiday) & stopped the escalating collapse of the banking industry. - Roosevelt’s first fireside chat encouraged people to trust banks = when banks reopened, the panic had subsided. - Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC): government insurance of bank deposits built confidence in the banks’ security. - Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC): Stock market regulations put in place to prevent the conditions that led to the crash. - Federal government sent millions of dollars to the states for relief, using deficit spending to boost the economy & ‘prime the pump.’

50 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): farmers were paid government subsidies to not plant so many crops (addressed overproduction & low prices). - Program stabilized prices & raised farm income, but hurt sharecroppers & tenant farmers by taking some farm land out of production. - Rural Electrification Act (REA): brought electricity to the countryside. - Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): built dams to generate electricity in 7 states = created thousands of jobs & stimulated the economy.

51 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): unemployed young men were given work in the nations’ parks. Other programs built bridges, hospitals, schools & airfields. - Works Progress Administration (WPA): cultural programs provided work for writers, artists, & actors & established the precedent for federal support of the arts. - Job creation programs put people to work, alleviated despair & economic hardship, & pumped some money into the economy, but… the New Deal did not result in economic recovery.

52 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Second New Deal: response to criticism of the New Deal from conservatives & liberals & rulings by the Supreme Court that struck down some New Deal programs. - Political Right’s (Republicans) criticism = New Deal was too expensive & socialist. - F.D.R. = accused of taking too much power for the government & executive branch; critics compared him to fascist leaders in Europe.

53 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Conservative Supreme Court undermined New Deal programs. - Struck down National Recovery Administration (NRA) program designed to help the economy stabilize & recover by making codes of fair practices written by business, labor & government representatives. - Declared (NRA) program unconstitutional. - Court struck down the right of labor unions to organize & bargain collectively for workers & minimum wage & maximum hour provisions. Court also struck down the subsidies for farmers - Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA).

54 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Court-Packing plan promoted a backlash (Republicans) against Roosevelt, but the court did not overturn any subsequent New Deal legislation. - FDR - criticized for the unbalanced budget. - Critics on the political Left claimed Roosevelt wasn’t doing enough to redistribute income & help the elderly & poor. - Labor unions demanded recognition.

55 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Second New Deal: (1935) started with a Second Hundred Days - rejected criticisms of the Right & responded to the criticisms of the Left. - Placed emphasis on reform of the system while maintaining relief & recovery efforts. - Established Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) = minimum wage & maximum hours. - Fair Employment Practices Act (Wagner Act) = recognized the right of workers to organize in labor unions & bargain collectively

56 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Social Security Act (SSA) = national insurance established for the unemployed, disabled, elderly & dependent children. - Workers paid into the plan = protection against unemployment & for retirement. - Program did not cover all workers, but it became the most significant & enduring part of the New Deal & impacted the poverty level. FDR signing the SSA Act, Aug 14, 1935

57 23.1: A New Deal Fights the Depression
& 23.2: The Second New Deal Takes Hold - Social Security didn’t immediately aid recovery from the Depression = took money from paychecks & didn’t make immediate payments. - Critics cite the Social Security Act as evidence of laying the foundation for excessive social welfare. End of 23.1 & 23.2 Notes

58 23.3: The New Deal Affects Many Groups
& 23.4: Culture in the 1930s - Af. Americans were affected by the privation of the Depression & by discrimination & racial hostility. - Last hired & the first fired. 48% of black workers were unemployed in 1933 & were not protected by New Deal programs. - Farm subsidies paid to landowners hurt sharecropper & tenant farmers (often African American). - CCC = racially segregated. - TVA gave skilled jobs to whites.

59 23.3: The New Deal Affects Many Groups
& 23.4: Culture in the 1930s - Pres. Roosevelt attempted to address racial discrimination & consulted the “Black Cabinet” = group of Af. American government employees (not Cabinet members). - Eleanor Roosevelt championed Marian Anderson against the Daughters of the American Revolution = arranged for her concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.

60 23.3: The New Deal Affects Many Groups
& 23.4: Culture in the 1930s - Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) = commission established to protect the rights of Af. American workers in wartime industries. - Resulted in northern blacks voting for the Democratic Party.

61 23.3: The New Deal Affects Many Groups
& 23.4: Culture in the 1930s - Women had to “use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.” - Had to find whatever work they could to help their families, despite job discrimination (taking jobs away from men).

62 23.3: The New Deal Affects Many Groups
& 23.4: Culture in the 1930s - New Deal didn’t address women’s problems = CCC was limited to young men & other programs hired more men than women. - National Recovery Administration (NRA) = allowed lower minimum wage for women. - Social Security Act failed to provide coverage for many women workers. - Roosevelt did name the first woman to a cabinet level position & relied upon his wife Eleanor for advice & information.

63 23.3: The New Deal Affects Many Groups
& 23.4: Culture in the 1930s - New Deal was part of a pattern of reform movements in the U.S. - New Deal recognized the role of labor unions & established minimum wage & maximum hours standards (goal of late 1800s unions & the progressive movement). - New Deal - a continuation of the progressive reform & a precursor to the 1960s reform movement, including the civil rights movement & Great Society. End of 23.3 & 23.4 Notes

64 End of Unit 9.3


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