2 Main Idea of SectionDuring the Great Depression Americans did what they had to do to survive.
3 The Depression Devastates People’s Lives Depression in the citiesDepression in rural areasThe Dust Bowl
4 Depression in the Cities Unemployment rate only tells part of the storyMore importantly was the impact it had on people’s livesThe Depression brought hardship, homelessness, and hunger to millions
5 HomelessnessPeople lost jobs, were evicted from their homes, and ended up in the streetsSome people lived in sewer pipes or parks, keeping “warm” wrapping themselves in newspaperOthers built makeshift shacks out of scrap materialWhen these joined together, they became known as shantytowns
9 Observer of Settlement “Here were all these people living in old, rusted-out car bodies… There were people living in shacks made of orange crates. One family with a whole lot of kids were living in a piano box… People were living in whatever they could junk together.”
10 Soup Kitchens and Bread Lines Poor had to dig through garbage cans or beg for foodSoup kitchens offered free or low-cost foodBread lines were lines of people waiting to receive food from charitable organizations or public agenciesAl Capone’s “contribution”
11 Herman Shumlin – A Personal Voice “Two or three blocks along Times Square, you’d see these men, silent, shuffling along in a line. Getting this handout of coffee and doughnuts, dealt out from great trucks… I’d see that flat, opaque, expressionless look which spelled, for me, human disaster. Men… who had responsible positions. Who had lost their jobs, lost their homes, lost their families… They were destroyed men.”
12 Minorities Face Hardships African-Americans and Latinos had higher unemployment rates and were paid lowerThey also dealt with increasing racial violence from whites who were competing for the same jobsMany Hispanics relocated to Mexico voluntarily or were deported
13 Depression in Rural Areas Falling prices and rising debt… WHY?Between 1929 and 1932, 400,000 farms were lost through foreclosureForeclosure – Process by which banks took back farms when the owner could not make a paymentTurned to tenant farming to scrape out a living
14 The Dust BowlDrought in Midwest wreaked havoc on Great Plains. Why did this happen?Farmers from TX to ND broke up the grassland with tractors and planted millions of acres of farmland. This removed the thick prairie grasses.Farmers exhausted the farmland soil and it became unsuitable for growing crops
17 Headed West Thousands of people migrated to California Known as “Okies”, originally for people from Oklahoma then becoming a negative term referring to migrants
18 Effects on the American Family Men in the Streets, Looking for WorkWomen Struggle to SurviveChildren Suffer HardshipsSocial and Psychological Effects
19 Men in the StreetsHobos – 300,000 men traveled around in boxcars looking for work, all the while sleeping under bridgesUnemployment or food stamps? For the most part, no. NYC gave out $2.39 per family, not nearly enough to survive.
20 HOBO SYMBOLS to indicate danger or services available… Investigate the Hobo symbols and determine the importance of each one.
22 Thomas Wolfe – Personal Voice “These were the wanderers from town to town, the riders of freight trains, the thumbers of rides on highways, the uprooted, unwanted male population of America. They… gathered in the big cities when winter came, hungry, defeated, empty, hopeless, restless… always on the move, looking everywhere for work, for the bare crumbs to support their miserable lives, and finding neither work nor crumbs.”
23 Women Struggle to Survive Men were gone looking for work or just goneCanned food and sewed clothesWorking women became targets of resentment, as did African-Americans and LatinosSome women were too ashamed to reveal their hardship and starved to death in attics
24 Maridel Seuer – Personal Voice “I’ve lived in cities for many months, broke, without help, too timid to get in bread lines. I’ve known many women to live like this until they simply faint in the street… A woman will shut herself up in her room until it is taken away from her, and eat a cracker a day and be as quiet as a mouse… [She] will go for weeks verging on starvation… going through the streets ashamed, sitting in libraries, parks, going for days without speaking to a living soul, shut up in the terror of her own misery.”
25 Children Suffer Hardships Falling revenues caused school boards to shorten school year and even close schools. By 1933, 2600 schools had closed leaving 300,000 students out of school. What happened to these children?Children would hop around the country to “escape poverty” on railcars.Exciting life but often dangerous with 24,647 dead and 27,171 injured on railroad property from
27 Social and Psychological Effects – Suicide rate rose 30%Three times as many people were admitted to state mental hospitals as in normal timesStopped going to doctors and dentists - no $Put off college and making families or even getting married