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Poverties Robert Walker. Working assumptions Poverty does not exist Low income exists  A consequence of unequal income distribution.

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Presentation on theme: "Poverties Robert Walker. Working assumptions Poverty does not exist Low income exists  A consequence of unequal income distribution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Poverties Robert Walker

2 Working assumptions Poverty does not exist Low income exists  A consequence of unequal income distribution

3 Income distribution Number of people Income Low income

4 Working assumptions Poverty does not exist Low income exists  A consequence of unequal income distribution Low income in relation to need - hardship exists

5 Income distribution Number of people Income Low income

6 Welfare distribution Number of people Income Hardship Income to needs

7 Working assumptions  Need is a relative concept  Socially constructed Poverty is a politically constructed  Defined arbitrarily  Predicates action Poverty does not exist Low income exists  A consequence of unequal income distribution Low income in relation to need - hardship exists

8 30 second summary Poverty is not inevitable Poverty is differentiated  Not one poverty but many Poverty is shaped by time  Begins and ends Shaped also by space Poverty is shaped by individual agency Poverty is experienced by people

9 Poverty is not inevitable

10 Setting the poverty threshold Income Number of people Poverty Income to needs Poverty line Median 1/21/2 1/21/2 Equivalised income

11 Income poverty, mid-late 1990s

12 Income Number of people Poverty Income to needs Poverty line Median 1/21/2 1/21/2 Equivalised income Changing the poverty threshold 60 per cent of median

13 Income Number of people Poverty Income to needs Poverty line Median 60%40% Equivalised income

14 Income poverty (60% median) 2001

15 Reducing income poverty

16 Poverty is differentiated

17 Incidence of poverty Income Number of people Poverty Income to needs Poverty line

18 Number of people Poverty Income to needs Poverty line

19 Number of people Poverty Income to needs Poverty line

20 Severity Number of people Poverty Income to needs Poverty line Severity Poverty gap mean

21 Poverty gaps, selected countries, mid 1990s

22 Poverty is shaped by time

23 Incidence of poverty Number of people t 1 t 2 t 3 t 4 t 5 Annual Cumulative Three year measures

24 Prevalence of poverty, 1990s Source OECD, 2001

25 Income poverty (60% median) 2001

26 Prevalence of poverty types, mid 1990s Long term poverty as percentage of three year ever poor Source: OECD, 2001

27 Types of poverty: Relative risk, UK Source: OECD, 2001

28 Types of poverty: Relative risk, US & UK UK USA Poor at least once Always poor Permanent income poor Source: OECD, 2001

29 Italy: Relative risk UKUSA Poor at least once Always poor Permanent income poor Source: OECD, 2001 Italy

30 Triggers of poverty

31 Types of poverty Poverty threshold Non poor Permanent Transient Persistent Chronic Recurrent Time Income Occasional

32 Childhood poverty in the US: composition of the 38% who suffer poverty Source: Walker with Ashworth, 1994

33 Childhood poverty in the US: composition of currently poor

34 Characteristics of poor US children TransientOccasional RecurrentPersistent ChronicPermanent White Non- white One parent Two parent

35 Poverty is shaped by time Distribution of poverty across time helps to determine:  The kind of poverty experienced Transient poverty differs from permanent poverty which differs from repeated spells  The incidence of poverty Short spells mean higher prevalence Long spells mean higher concentration

36 Poverty is shaped by time Distribution of poverty across time helps to determine:  The kind of poverty experienced Transient poverty differs from permanent poverty which differs from repeated spells  The incidence of poverty Short spells mean higher prevalence Long spells mean higher concentration Structures and institutions affect the:  The incidence and distribution of poverty inducing events  The risk that such events will lead to poverty

37 Poverty is shaped by time Distribution of poverty across time helps to determine:  the incidence of poverty Short spells mean higher prevalence Long spells mean higher concentration  The kind of poverty experienced Transient poverty differs from permanent poverty which differs from repeated spells Structures and institutions affect the:  The incidence and distribution of poverty inducing events  The risk that such events will lead to poverty Individual agency does likewise

38 Poverty is shaped by agency

39 Coping strategies Budgeting Over time  Deferring  Forgoing  Borrowing Managing demand  Shop frequently  Pander to wants  Resist children Minimise risk

40 Coping strategies Budgeting Increase income  Get job  Sell non-essentials  Delay paying bills  Work on the side  Cash in insurance  Pawn valuables  Sell essentials  Seek charities  Petty crime  Prostitution  Begging £ Social acceptability +ve -ve

41 Poverty is experienced

42 Poverty is experienced as: Relative Jeff Moore

43 Poverty is experienced as: Relative Loss of dignity Gordon Parks

44 Poverty is experienced as: Relative Loss of dignity Being labelled The Guardian

45 Poverty is experienced as: Relative Loss of dignity Being labelled Doing without Murdo MacLoed

46 Poverty is experienced as: Relative Loss of dignity Being labelled Doing without Being stressed Gordon Parks

47 Poverty is experienced as: Relative Loss of dignity Being labelled Doing without Being stressed Being driven to crime The Guardian

48 Conclusions Poverty is not inevitable Not one poverty but many Poverty is shaped by time and space Poverty is multi-dimensional Poverty is shaped by agency and experience Policy must address  Different kinds of poverty  Intervene in people’s trajectories

49 Poverty is multi-dimensional

50 What to take account of PC PC + SPR PC + SPR + SPC PC + SPC + SPC + Assets PC + SPC + SPC + Assets + Dignity PC+SPC+SPC+Assets+Dignity+Autonomy Personal Consumption Shared Property Rights (Resources) State Provided Commodities Source: Baulch (1996)

51 Conclusions Poverty is not inevitable Not one poverty but many Poverty is shaped by time and space Poverty is multi-dimensional Poverty is shaped by agency and experience Policy must address  Different kinds of poverty  Intervene in people’s trajectories

52 Income poverty (60% median) 2001

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