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©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The 1930s CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ CHAPTER 22 Hardship and.

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Presentation on theme: "©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The 1930s CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ CHAPTER 22 Hardship and."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The 1930s CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ CHAPTER 22 Hardship and Hope in the 1930s: The Great Depression

2 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “…not the working classes that brought on the economic crisis, it was the big boys that thought the financial drunk was going to last forever, and overbought, overmerged, and overcapitalized.” Will Rogers, 1934

3 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE million unemployed Americans 1931Scottsboro Boys case taken up by International Labor Defense 1932Franklin Roosevelt wins Presidency Reconstruction Finance Corporation infuses economic institutions million unemployed Americans Civil Works Administration established Federal Emergency Relief Act Civilian Conservation Corps 1934Indian Reorganization Act Old Age Revolving Pensions, Limited 1935Social Security Act Huey P. Long fatally shot Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project Federal Theatre Project The Wagner Act Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) 1936Strikes against General Motors

4 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HARDSHIP AND HOPE Overview HThe Great Depression HPresidential Responses to the Depression HThe New Deal HA New Political Culture

5 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE GREAT DEPRESSION HCauses of the Crisis H“We Are Not Bums” HSurviving Hard Times HThe Dust Bowl

6 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Causes of the Crisis HNo safety net for the unemployed HLimited competition among corporations and small businesses failing HNo savings, and great debt HInternationally, exports fall, and foreign nations unable to repay debts HExcessive profits and unequal distribution of wealth HFederal Reserve policies

7 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “We Are Not Bums” H1930: 6 million Americans were unemployed. By 1933, 13 million Americans were unemployed HChanging gender roles HFamilies provide safety net

8 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Surviving Hard Times H200,000 young men “riding the rails”: hobos HScottsboro Boys trial H1933: over 5% of farms were foreclosed on HAfrican-American workers face fiercer discrimination in small job market HMexican Americans depended on children’s wages HWork in canneries HDeportation of 500,000 Mexicans from 1931 to 1934

9 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Dust Bowl HDrought in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico (the Dust Bowl) HApril 14, 1935: blown dust turned the skies black and killed livestock HMigration away from the Dust Bowl HDorothea Lange, Woody Guthrie, John Steinbeck

10 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers PRESIDENTIAL RESPONSES TO THE DEPRESSION HHerbert Hoover: Tackling the Crisis HFranklin Delano Roosevelt: The Pragmatist H“Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself”

11 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Herbert Hoover: Tackling the Crisis HEmergency Committee for Employment HNational Credit Corporation HReconstruction Finance Corporation HPublic works program HHoover Dam HMorris Muscle Shoals Bill (dam for Tennessee River)

12 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Franklin Delano Roosevelt: The Pragmatist HOld family with wealth, attended Harvard, and Columbia University law school HAdmirer of cousin Theodore Roosevelt HMarried to Theodore’s niece, Eleanor HNew York State Senator HAssistant Secretary of the Navy HVictim of polio: resulted in March of Dimes founding

13 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself” HMarch 4, 1932 inaugural address: “Nothing to fear but fear itself” HFireside chats HStrengthening of federal government HFriend to the immigrant communities

14 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE NEW DEAL HThe First Hundred Days HMonumental Projects Transforming the Landscape HProtest and Pressure from the Left and the Right HEleanor Roosevelt: Activist and First Lady HThe Second New Deal HFDR’s Second Term

15 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The First Hundred Days HProhibition repealed HSecurities and Exchange Commission HFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation HCivil Works Administration HFederal Emergency Relief Act HCivilian Conservation Corp HNational Recovery Administration HNational Labor Board HTennessee Valley Authority HIndian Reorganization Act

16 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Areas Served by the Tennessee Valley Authority

17 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Monumental Projects Transforming the Landscape H1930s: skyscrapers, bridges, dams, and monuments built—symbolized human and technological triumph in the midst of hardship HElectricity and irrigation provided to the arid West — Hoover Dam, Grand Coulee Dam HThe Golden Gate Bridge HConstruction began on Empire State Building, and Rockefeller Center HMount Rushmore

18 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Protest and Pressure from the Left and the Right HFrancis Townsend and the Old Age Revolving Pensions, Limited HSocial Security Act of 1935 HCharles E. Coughlin HRadio show: The Golden House of the Little Flower, denounces New Deal as Communism, admirer of Hitler and Mussolini HHuey P. Long HU.S. Senator, Roosevelt critic, populist

19 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Eleanor Roosevelt: Activist and First Lady HSad childhood, but education abroad helped her to develop strength and confidence HMarried FDR, six children HAntilynching bill HMarian Anderson and the DAR HUnited Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 H1962: President’s Commission on the Status of Women

20 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Second New Deal HThe Social Security program: unemployment insurance and relief for the needy HThe Works Progress Administration HFederal Art Project HFederal Theatre Project

21 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers FDR’s Second Term HFDR won overwhelmingly second term (Electoral vote: 523 to 8) HSupreme Court proposal defeated HFDR proposed appointing one new justice for every one on the court who had at least 10 years of service and who did not retire within six months after turning 70

22 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers A NEW POLITICAL CULTURE HThe Labor Movement HThe New Deal Coalition HA New Americanism

23 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Labor Movement HCommittee for Industrial Organization (CIO) as part of the American Federation of Labor HJohn L. Lewis and Sidney Hillman HSit-down strikes—began in Akron Ohio HGeneral Motors strikes HSeveral cities, violence broke out but governor of Michigan and President Roosevelt refused to send in National Guard.. HWomen participated in strikes as well as men

24 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The New Deal Coalition HNorthern African Americans switch to the Democratic Party HExecutive Order 7046 bans discrimination in WPA HLatinos and the El Congreso de Pueblos de Habla Español

25 ©2006 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers A New Americanism HA new diverse, inclusive country HArts reflect common man HMovies challenged gender and class hierarchies HSports diversified: DiMaggio, Joe Louis, HWomen heroines: Earhart, Helen Wills, Babe Didriskon


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