Presentation on theme: "Americans with Disabilities Act"— Presentation transcript:
1Americans with Disabilities Act Successful Reasonable Accommodation ProcessTitle I – EmploymentSouthwest ADA CenterPRESENTER:Julie Ballinger, Southwest ADA Center Regional AffiliateDisability Rights and Issues ConsultantStarReach EnterprisesThe information herein is intended solely as informal guidance and is neither a determination of your legal rights or responsibilities under the Act, nor binding on anyagency with enforcement responsibility under the ADA.
2Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505) 797-8612 julieb4@flash Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505)The ADA Resource!Expert staff are available to provide training, publications and respond to your inquiries.Hot Line:Web Site:Check out the Archived Webinars and Podcasts!The Leading Resource OnADA & ADAAAOther disability related laws such as IDEAMaking information technology accessibleServices a wide range of audiences includingemployersbusinessesgovernment agenciesWIA Workforce Systemschoolspeople with disabilitiesSouthwest ADA Center
3Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises email@example.com, 505-797-8612 HousekeepingTraining Process and GoalsTraining is 3 hoursAsk questions / Interactive discussion / Learn from each otherRaise to the level of participants existing knowledgeInteractive ExercisesNot about getting through the whole PowerPoint – only a framework to advance what you want to explore / examineIs designed to have extensive info for future referenceMaterialsPowerPoint (includes Resources)EvaluationPossible Pre & Post SurveySouthwest ADA Center
4Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505) 797-8612 julieb4@flash Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505)The PowerPoint Contents Note: Model Reasonable Accommodation Policy on SPO websiteEmployment Trend: Why Create a Culture of Inclusion?Covered Entities - Public vs. private employer requirementsBrief overview of who is covered now (ADAAA)Important EEOC guidance documentsGetting to the workplace accommodations processDisability InquiriesEnacting and satisfying the reasonable accommodations process and requirementsWhat is unreasonable?Qualification/performance and conduct standardsDirect threat and reasonable accommodationsUndue hardshipPolicy and Procedure Models and WebcastBest practices and successful reasonable accommodations process tipsInteractive ExerciseAppendixTypes of accommodations - including the not so obviousGREAT ADA Technical Assistant resourcesSouthwest ADA Center
6The Business / Employment Case Why Create A Culture of Inclusion? 18 to 20 percent of Americans have a disability. The largest percentage (70%) of disabilities are those that are hidden. Some 58 million adults, 34 percent of people age 18 to 65, have at least one chronic condition and 19 million adults (11%) have two or more chronic conditions. It is estimated that by the year 2020 half of the U.S. population will have at least one chronic condition and one-quarter will be living with multiple chronic conditions.On January 1, 2011, the first of the 83 million-strong wave of “boomers” began to reach retirement age and every day approximately 10,000 more employees reach this milestone. Many of these employees will retire creating a shortage of workers in various industries.In the next 5 years, there will be about 10 million more jobsthan people to fill them.
7The ADA“This Act is powerful in its simplicity. It will ensure that people with disabilities are given the basic guarantees for which they have worked so hard: independence, freedom of choice, control of their lives, and the opportunity to blend fully and equally into the rich mosaic of the American mainstream.”President George Bush at the Signingof the American with Disabilities Act of 1990
8Sociological Perspective of Access Categorization/labeling of some people as “disabled” and others as “non-disabled” depends upon society’s relative ideas:what activities people should be able to do andhow they should be able to do itJust imagine……what if………
9Public vs. Private Employer Private Employers = ADA Title I15 or more employees (also check your state/city law)Government Employers = ADA & Rehab Act Sec. 504Covered regardless of number of employeesObligations under 504 are essentially the same as the ADA:require formalized documentation of compliance effortsappointment of a 504/ADA Coordinatorestablishment of grievance procedures to address disability-related complaints, including those of employeesWidely publicize the grievance procedures throughout the institutionAlso coveredEmployment agencieslabor organizationsjoint labor management committees
10Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505) 797-8612 julieb4@flash Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505)Definition of Disability - ADA Amendments Act Signed September 25, 2008 / Enacted January 1, Regulations Published March 11, 2011 / Regulations Effective May 24, Negates US Supreme Court Rulings that narrowed the definition of disabilityThe ADAAA retains without amendment the existing definition of the term “disability” but clarifies the key words and phrases in the definition.The term “disability” means, with respect to an individualwho has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; orhas a record of such an impairment; oris regarded as having such an impairment-even if he or she does not, in fact, have such an impairment (actual or perceived)Also covered are individuals who are discriminatedagainst due to their association with a personwith a disability.Southwest ADA Center
12ADAAA - Who is protected? Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505)ADAAA - Who is protected?The definition of disability = broader coverage – Major life activities now includes bodily functions.“Substantially limits” to be interpreted consistently with the ADAAA (rejects “prevent or severely restrict” = too demanding)Substantially limits = only one major life activity has to be limitedEpisodic or in-remission impairment covered if substantially limits a major life activity when activeEliminates ‘mitigating measures’ testOnly mitigating measures that can be considered = ordinary eyeglasses or contact lenses = fully correct visual acuity or refractive errorNo discrimination on the basis of uncorrected vision in determining qualification standards/selection criteria -- unless job related & consistent with business necessity.Individuals who are otherwise qualified and can provediscrimination are entitled to relief.Southwest ADA Center
14Record of Disability / “Regarded As” “Record of” no specific changes in the ADAAAEEOC’s long-held position that accommodation available for “record of” if still needed“Regarded As” An individual meets this requirement if discriminated against because of an actual or perceived physical or mental impairmentWhether or not the impairment limits or is perceived to limit a major life activityADAAA intent = discrimination on the basis of disabilityDon’t have to provide reasonable accommodations to individuals who are considered “regarded as”
15Transitory And Minor Impairments Impairments that are not usually disabilitiesTemporary, non-chronic impairments of short duration with little or no residual effects (such as the common cold, seasonal or common influenza, a sprained joint) usually will not substantially limit a major life activity.“Regarded As” does NOT apply if:The impairment is both transitory AND minor.lasting or expected to last for six months or less rule – only applies to Regarded AsNOTE: Actual DisabilityAn impairment may substantially limit a major life activity even if it lasts, or is expected to last for fewer then six months and reasonable accommodations may need to be providedExample: Employee has 2 broken arms from a car accident that are expected to heal within 4 to 6 months.
16For additional information and detail guidance on the ADAAA go to www For additional information and detail guidance on the ADAAA go toQuestions and Answers on the Final Rule Implementing the ADA Amendments Act of 2008Fact Sheet on the EEOC’s Final Regulations Implementing the ADAAAFinal Regulations Implementing the ADAAAThe ADA Amendments Act can be found on the EEOC website
17The ADA Coverage Exclusions current illegal drug addiction / psychoactive substance use disorders resulting from current illegal use of drugcompulsive gamblingpedophilia / exhibitionism / voyeurism / other sexual behavior disorderskleptomaniapyromaniagender identity not resulting from a physical condition*Transvestitism*Transsexualism**Remember the ADA was passed in 1990 when littlewas known or accepted and would have beenconsidered an excluded impairment
18Important Technical Assistance Guidance from EEOC that I will be referencing ADA Enforcement Guidance: Pre-employment Disability-Related Questions and Medical ExaminationsEEOC Enforcement Guidance on Disability-Related Inquiries and Medical Examinations of Employees Under the Americans with Disabilities ActThe Family and Medical Leave Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964The Americans With Disabilities Act: Applying Performance And Conduct Standards To Employees With Disabilities
19Reasonable Accommodation Policy Approach Creating a Culture of Access and Inclusion SAYYes when you can and no when you have to.rather thanNo when you can and yes when you have to.Be aware of any negative stereotypes and stigma you may have, even if unintentional
201. To ensure equal opportunity in the application process, The ADA requires reasonable accommodation in three aspects of employment1. To ensure equal opportunity in the application process,2. To enable a qualified individual with a disability to perform the essential functions of a job,3. To enable an employee with a disability to enjoy equal benefits and privileges of employment.
21Getting to the Workplace Accommodation Before even considering reasonable AccommodationFirst ask “Is this an ADA issue?”
22Determining If You Have an ADA Issue Relevant portions of the ADA require:an employer;to provide reasonable accommodation;to otherwise qualified individuals;with disabilities;who are employees or applicants for employment;unless to do so would cause undue hardship.
23For Each Employee Go Back to the Basics! Does the individual have a Disability?Is the individual otherwise Qualified?Is the accommodation needed Reasonable to do the essential job functions or to apply for the job?Does the accommodation Remove application or employment barriers?Is the accommodation made being monitoredto make sure it Remains Effective?
242. Post-offer - Pre-employment Is there a disability? How do you know? Stages of Employment & Disability Inquiries1. Application2. Post-offer - Pre-employmentADA Enforcement Guidance: Preemployment Disability-Related Questions and Medical Examinations3. EmploymentEEOC Enforcement Guidance on Disability-Related Inquiries and Medical Examinations of Employees Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Confidentiality Requirements – disability/medical info separate from personnel fileRA Policies & Procedures address eachof these 3 stages?
25Is the Individual “Otherwise Qualified” Have the skill, experience, education, and other job-related requirements of the position, and who, with reasonable accommodation, if needed, can perform the essential function of the job.Ask:What are all the job-related qualifications?Are they all listed on the job description?Review job descriptionsWhat steps were taken to ensure that each qualification is actually job-related?What are the screening tools to disqualify on anon-disability-related basis?( ie: criminal history and drug tests).
26Process……and the first 3 minutes of the interactive process RA Policies &ProceduresMake sure to include a process to monitor how accommodations are working and how leave as an RA interacts with FMLAIndividual must let employer know that an adjustment or change is needed for a medical condition.Employer is not required to assume disabilityNot obligated to observe an employee for any behavior that may be disability related, and then decide the employee is disabled.The Request (No Magic Words) is the First Step in the interactive process between the individual and employerCan be made by others (family member, friend) or by employer or other employee observation.Does not need to be in writing to start the process
27What Satisfies Accommodation Requirements? Don’t have to give accommodation requested by employee but the….Accommodation must be EFFECTIVEmust enable the employee to perform the essential functions of the job;must enable applicant with a disability to have an equal opportunity to participate in the application process; andmust enable employee to enjoy privileges and benefits of employment.
28“UN”Reasonable Accommodations Eliminating essential functions of the jobLowering production standardsPersonal use items (i.e.: prosthetic limb, eyeglasses, hearing aids, wheelchair)Placing a disabled applicant in job for which he/she did not specifically applyPlacing a disabled individual into a job if doing so would create a direct threat to the health or safety of the individual or others (risk cannot be lowered to acceptable level with reasonable accommodation)Maintaining the salary of an employee reassigned from a higher-paying job to a lower-paying one if the employer does not do so for non-disabled.Creating a jobBumping another employee from his/her job
29Qualification / Performance Requirements & Conduct Standards Qualification / Performance must be:job relatedconsistent with business necessitythe qualification standards that are:truly reflected in what is expectedperformed in the actual workplaceBased on essential job functions only (not marginal functions)Conduct Standardsunacceptable workplace conduct can be enforcedEEOC Guidance: The Americans With Disabilities Act:Applying Performance And Conduct StandardsTo Employees With Disabilities
30Direct Threat and Reasonable Accommodations If an individual poses a Direct Threatsignificant risk of substantial harm to the health and safety of the individual or othersthe employer must determine whether a reasonable accommodation would either eliminate the risk or reduce the risk to where substantial harm no longer exists.
31Undue Hardship Limitations costly or unduly extensive or The responsibility of an employer to provide reasonable accommodation is limited to those situations that would not cause an undue hardship.Limitationscostly orunduly extensive orSubstantial orDisruptive orthose that would fundamentally alter the nature or operation of the business
32Determining Undue Hardship The employer is the one who is required to show that an accommodation is an undue hardship.must consider whether there is an alternative accommodation that would not impose such hardship.Employers must determine undue hardship on a case by case basisconsider the undue hardship in relation to the size of the employer,the resources available, andthe nature of the operation.The employer should also factor in the effect of tax incentives on the cost of an accommodation before making an undue hardship determination.Assessment of undue hardship is an ongoing process as resources and situations change.
33RA Policy and Procedure Ingredients Clearly state the employer complies with the ADADefinition of disabilityDefinition of reasonable accommodationAccommodation processTrainingWho is responsible for what (job candidates, employee, supervisors, HR, etc)How the process is communicated to applicants and employeesHow the request needs to be madeResponding to the requestMonitoring the effectiveness of the accommodation givenAccommodation rejectionAppeal processDocumentation of the process
34Policy and Procedure Models and Webcast DBTAC Southwest ADA Center Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505)Policy and Procedure Models and Webcast DBTAC Southwest ADA Center“Developing a Successful Reasonable Accommodation Process” webcast (part 1 and part 2) and model policiesYou will find the two model RA P&P under Part 1 webcast (and the Part 1 Power Point).Small Business Model Reasonable Accommodation Policy Title II State and Local Government Procedures Model Reasonable Accommodation PolicyFor Part 2 webcast PowerPoint:Southwest ADA Center
35Successful RA Process Tips! Creating a Culture of Access and Inclusion Securing support from the top - including high level administrators.Compliance efforts must be system-wide, centralized, concerted and coordinatedauthority needs to be centralized to ensure consistent application of programs, policies and procedures.Appoint a Task ForceWhile not required by the ADA or 504 it may be wise to appoint an organization-wide Task Force.Utilize the expertise, ideas and input from staff at all levels plus research ADA resources. Invite individuals with disabilities, and external customers as “consultants” to the group. Employees will then have an internal, informal access point rather than starting their complaint process outside the organization with legal counsel or other third parties.
36Successful RA Process Tips! Review policies, procedures, and formsReview application forms and recruiting & hiring practicesinclude qualification standards & selection criteria, upgrading, promotion, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination and rehiring procedures. Interviewers need to know what they can and can’t ask AND when they can and can’t ask disability-related questions.Review record keeping requirements and the need for confidentiality of information obtained during medical examinations.Assess Benefits programsmedical, hospital, accident, life insurance, & retirement programsWorkers compensation, FMLA and return to work programs.Recreation, education and employer sponsored social activities must be accessible.
37Successful RA Process Tips! Conduct technology and physical audits of the workplaceLunchrooms, lounges, bathrooms, and parking must be accessible to all employees.Information technology, including the web, software and hardware should be accessible as well.Review job descriptionsSection 504 nor the ADA require written job descriptions. But most of the literature suggests that properly prepared job descriptions are critical in complying with the regulations. Job descriptions can be a valuable tool in the recruitment, selection, hiring, and accommodation assessments needed for successful programs. Job descriptions are a road map for supervisors, interviewers, even applicants and employees throughout the employment process.
38Successful RA Process Tips! Develop a process for making accommodations and determining undue hardshipThe process must be on a case-by-case basis but within a structured system for making assessments.Employment decisions must be based on the abilities of individual applicants or employees, and not on presumptions about what individuals with disabilities can or cannot do.Develop training programs and manualsTraining is key - at all levels of the organization.All employees should be trained: interviewers, hiring supervisors, administrators, co-workers.Often the greatest barrier to implementing successful disability employment practices is the attitudes of co-workers.All employees should be part of the solution in ensuring equal access.
39Successful RA Process Tips! Develop and implement a comprehensive communication programIt’s not enough to have policies available in a handbook.Communication vehicles need to be multi-faceted. Develop evaluation and monitoring toolsDocument everything you do to demonstrate that you are making good faith efforts toward compliance.what accommodations have been made for whomwhat attempts were made to make accommodations, including what resources were accessed in those attempts. Include a system for indicating when accommodations were not made because of undue hardshipfor monitoring accommodations made
40Creating a Work Culture of Access AccessibilityIncreases the ability of the organization to attract qualified applicantsEquals agility creating a creative (not expensive) flexible employer who will attract and maintain the best potential employeesRemember the business and employment case so your organization remains productive and viable.
41Group Training Scenarios Exercise What would you do? Consider the following as you ponder on what steps to take toaddress the situation and what additional facts you need to know.Is this individual covered by the ADA? / Is there a disability?Is the individual otherwise qualified?Is the accommodation requested OR needed reasonable?Does the accommodation remove employment barriers to do the essential functions of the job or the apply for the job?What other reasonable accommodations could be made to create equal employment access?How will you monitor the accommodationto make sure it remains effective?
42SeizuresAn employee, whose job it is to market the firm’s services by meeting with potential clients at their offices, develops a condition that results in occasional seizures. As a result the employee can no longer drive but wants to continue to do his job. The employee has worked for the firm for 15 years and has been recognized as the “best salesman” 5 years in a row.
43Chronic Fatigue Syndrome An employee, due to chronic fatigue syndrome, found it difficult to arrive at work on time early in the morning. For three years, the employee was given the accommodation of a later start time and received satisfactory job performance ratings all three years as a tax auditor.A new supervisor decided that letting this employee come in later than the rest of the employees was bad for morale and that this employee could at least try to arrive at 8:00 am, so he removed the accommodation.Plus the new supervisor could not find any past documentation of the granted accommodation.
44Hip and Bone PainAn grocery store employee who had hip and bone problems was experiencing severe leg pain. He mentioned the pain to his employer and that he “couldn't stand on it much longer.”The employer sympathized with the employee but didn’t think any more of the conversation.
45DepressionAn employee, who is a social worker the State Dept. of Health, began to experience mental health difficulties. He found that his job was becoming more and more stressful due to his depression.The employee asked his employer to transfer him to another position within the Dept., claiming that his current position was too stressful and overwhelming. The employer denied the request and said that he was "doing fine" in his current position.During a subsequent meeting, the employee "broke down" and started to cry. During the weeks following this meeting, the employee was reprimanded; once for working late without approval and 4 times for failing to complete his assigned tasks in a timely manner.
46Medical RestrictionsAn employee, who is a sales manager in a small retail store, is required to perform certain cleaning tasks, including mopping floors, that violated his medical restrictions. The employee asked for an accommodation not to be assigned mopping responsibilities and provided medical support.The employer refused the request and required the employee to mop, which lead to further injury and a medical leave.
47Environmental Illness An administrative employee at a computer company develops an multiple chemical sensitivity (the cause of which is unknown). The illness makes her very allergic to fragrances. She asks her supervisor if she will send a memo to her co-workers asking them to refrain from wearing perfume at the office. The supervisor refuses. Her production suffers and she is fired.
48Seasonal Affective Disorder A teacher with seasonal affective disorder requested a classroom with natural light and identified other issues that exacerbated her condition, including noise distractions and inadequate ventilation.Although the school remedied some of these issues, it failed to reassign her to a room with natural light.As a result, plaintiff needed to take medical leave.
49Appendix Types of Accommodations Extensive ADA Resources Including the not so obviousExtensive ADA Resources
50Types of Accommodations Information Technology (conduct web, software, hardware audits)Assistive TechnologyModifications to work stations (conduct architectural audits)Modifications to scheduleTelecommutingStructural changes within leased spaceStructural changes to building during renovationsPromoting an employee into a vacant job
51Examples of RA for Involving Communication Tactile markings on equipment in Braille or raised print,Talking calculators,Speaker phones,Telecommunication Devices for the Deaf,Telephone amplifiers,Removing communication barriers such as putting up Braille signage or flashing fire alarms.Qualified readers or qualified sign language interpreters,Examinations, training materials or policies in Braille, large print, audio tape, etc.,Software for standard computers and other equipment that can enlarge print or convert print documents to spoken words (screen readers),
52Assistive Technology (See Accessible Action Technology Center in this PowerPoint Resources) Mechanical Page TurnersModifying Computer KeyboardsErgonomic Seating ConsiderationsHeadsetsNegative Tilted Keyboard and MouseAdjustable DesksSip/Puff Switch / Foot Switch
53Modifications to Work Stations FurnitureOffice layoutEquipment adaptations
54Modifications to Schedule / Telecommuting Flexible schedulingDelayed start timeTelecommuting can be an option for employees as a reasonable accommodation or means to keep valued employees.
55Structural Changes within Leased or Owned Space Bathroom modificationsDoor openersSignageAccessible stallsRearrange furniture in employee kitchenKeep reception area furniture out of main path of travelWhen carpeting needed to be replaced, low pile need to be prioritySome offices reconfigured for greater accessibility
56Structural Changes to Building During Renovations Main level parking lot modificationsMain level door openerMain level curb cutsRamp to doorsDoor openersMarking accessible parking spacesSignage on elevatorsBathroom modifications
57Steps to Workspace Accommodations Discuss accommodation needs with employee/s.Ask for suggestions for solutions.Research options.Make sure solution doesn’t pose obstacle for another employee!
58Steps to Office Modifications Invite employees to notify you of hard to use or inoperable elements of your facility- Create an Environment that invites this.Ask for suggested solutions.Research options.Make necessary modifications – can be useful for all employees!
59Steps to Building Modifications Discuss needs for accessible features with building owners/managers-may have to “stay” on them to do modifications!Provide written information on ADAAG, state or local codes to landlord.Provide referrals for technical assistance if necessary.Follow-up.Remind Leasers Access benefits ALL tenants!
60Development of Evacuation Plan (there are tons of resources on this – call the Southwest ADA Center) Like many accommodations, evacuation plans are for everyone!Invite employees with/without disabilities to discuss evacuation strategies/needs-what do they want to do to get down the stairs?Meet with fire marshal to determine average response times and their on-site protocol.A safe room that Fire marshals know about?Meet with staff or committee to devise evacuation plan.If necessary, purchase evacuation chair.Provide staff training on evacuation procedures.Fire box that has all your important info?
62Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505) 797-8612 julieb4@flash Julie Ballinger, StarReach Enterprises (505)The ADA Resource!The Leading Resource OnADA & ADAAAOther disability related laws such as IDEAMaking information technology accessibleServices a wide range of audiences includingemployersbusinessesgovernment agenciesWIA Workforce Systemschoolspeople with disabilitiesExpert staff are available to provide training, publications and respond to your inquiries.Hot Line:Web Site:Check out the Archived Webinars and Podcasts!Southwest ADA Center
63New Mexico Governor’s Commission on Disability Mission: To improve the quality of life of all New Mexicans with disabilities by addressing social integration, economic self-sufficiency, political resolve, physical and program accessibility, and full participation in the benefits of life and rights of all individuals. Information and Training ADA Employment: Reasonable Accommodations/Best Practices Emergency Preparedness NM Building Code: Accessibility Voting: Accessible Polling Sites Assistive Technology And much much more! Go to 491 Old Santa Fe Trail, Santa Fe, NM Phone/TTY (505) , Toll Free (in state only) /
64Job Accommodation Network Julie Ballinger, Disability Rights & Issues Consultant (505)Job Accommodation Network(V/TTY)A free consulting service designed to increase the employability of people with disabilities11/29/12Southwest ADA Center
65Accessible Action Technology Center http://www. resna The Accessible Technology Action Center (ATAC) facilitates and promotes the use of accessible technology in the hiring, employment, retention, and career advancement of individuals with disabilities.Develop, coordinate and publicize resources on accessible technology in the workplace;Promote effective employer practices in the workplace related to leadership, self-assessment, policies and practices, continuous improvement;Facilitate policy advancement on specific issues facing employers, developers, and the technology industry related to ensuring accessible, usable and interoperable technology in all types of work settings; andTranslate policy knowledge into adoption and implementation.A Program of RESNA at(Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive TechnologySociety of North America)
66Cornell University Employment and Disability Institute (EDI) Since 1968, researchers and practitioners at the Cornell ILR School with expertise in disability have helped companies, labor organizations, government agencies, schools, and communities throughout the United States and abroad to accommodate and integrate individuals with disabilities.The EDI team consults with policy makers, disability advocates, and rehabilitation program professionals.EDI provides technical assistance, training, and research in the following topic areas:ADA, Accommodation & Accessible IT, Community Inclusion, Disability Benefits and Work, Disability Employment Research, Disability Statistics Research, Educational Achievement & Transition, International Disability Research, and Workforce Development(VOICE)(TDD)
67US Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy ODEP is an extensive and rich source on employment and disability.(VOICE)(TDD)
68Equal Employment Opportunity Commission The EEOC provides access to Federal employment laws and regulations. The EEOC has publications on the Americans with Disabilities Act which include their policy guidance on various portions of the Act, fact sheets, Q&As, best practices, and other information.(TTD)
69ADA Case Law DatabaseThe ADA Case Law Database is a comprehensive search tool that provides information pertaining to significant rulings under the Employment (Title I), Local and State Government (Title II) and Places of Public Accommodations (Title III) provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).The database is a unique research tool specially designed to search by a variety of variables including but not limited to disability type, discrimination issue, jurisdiction and remedy.