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Winning and it’s Impact on Attendance in the National Football League William Bryant.

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Presentation on theme: "Winning and it’s Impact on Attendance in the National Football League William Bryant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Winning and it’s Impact on Attendance in the National Football League William Bryant

2 INTRODUCTION Fans enjoy going to sporting events Pay good money to see their favorite sports teams throughout the year Cheer for the athlete(s) who help their favorite teams win on a regular basis

3 NFL, NHL, NBA, MLB; each team in each sport begins the season looking to win the championship title Those teams with winning records usually have more people coming to their games (or do they?)

4 Competitive balance in professional sports is the goal to success for each league Salary cap in NFL (parity) No Salary Cap in other sports Does competitive balance help increase attendance at sporting events? (MTSU/Big Boi) If not winning and staying competitive, do teams have a chance to attract sellouts during home games

5 NFL TEAMS/DATA 1.Tennessee Titans 2.Cincinnati Bengals 3.Green Bay Packers 4.Oakland Raiders 5.Arizona Cardinals Information gathered from each team’s media guide from 1988-2003

6 NFL TEAMS/DATA Home games from 1988-2003 Opposing teams for each game Number of fans in attendance Price of tickets per season Dates of each game (Aug-Jan) Results from each game (Win-Loss)

7 GRANGER CAUSALITY Does winning (Y) have an impact on attendance (C)? In other words, does Y cause C? No brainer because losing teams don’t attract large crowds (my belief before running the regression) Results showed each team with a P value less than 1.

8 Green Bay Packers Statistical figures shows that team sold out games during losing seasons, which clealy contradicts null. Why? Lambeau Field/1960 Only sports team in city Rich tradition (championships/Brett Favre)

9 Tennessee Titans Coliseum/Since moving to Nashville Fans enjoyed first season in 1999 (Music City Miracle/Super Bowl) Examination of losing year (2001) saw consecutive sellout streak continue in each of the next three years Subjective perception Objective perception

10 Weakness in Research Five teams are not geographically close Three of the five teams relocated during the 16-year period Recommendations



13 EEOC’s Guidelines 2)Reasonable accommodation -Criteria for judging accommodation will be the alternatives considered or presented a)manifest requests – dress -Bhatia v. Chevron USA safety concerns about respirator -Wilson v. U.S. West Communications covering an abortion pin b)observation requests – Sabbath days

14 EEOC’s Guidelines 3)Alternative accommodations a)flexible scheduling b)voluntary substitutions c)lateral transfers d)job assignment changes

15 EEOC’s Guidelines 4)Undue hardship based upon a de minimis cost -Employers should document hardship by analyzing: -cost of lost productivity retraining, rehiring, transferring employees, size of employer, & number of employees

16 Illegal Accommodation Request Sutton v. Providence St. Joseph Medical Center - Sutton believed his religion prevented him from providing SSN to employer - Internal Revenue Code requires employer to provide SSN with tax withholdings - Violating law constitutes undue hardship

17 Recommendations 1)Nondiscrimination, anti-harassment policy a)Include in employee handbook b)Widely disseminate policy & conduct periodic reviews 2)No Solicitation/No Distribution Policy a)soliciting & distribution allowed only in nonworking areas and times 3)Company wide Training a)Policies b)Diversity training

18 Recommendations “In the event of a complaint” 1)assess events on a case-by-case basis 2)gather information from co-workers 3)keep written statements 4)allow the accused an opportunity to address concerns

19 “Guidelines on Religious Exercise & Religious Expression in Federal Workplace” Employee may express religious views as long as it doesn’t infringe on efficiency Agency may have legal obligation to restrict forms of speech that intrude on rights of others Affirmed rights of employees to wear religious jewelry, keep pictures & engage in bible studies with coworkers

20 Workplace Religious Freedom Act First introduced to the Senate in 1997 Most recently introduced in September 1999 If signed into law it would: --- require employers with 15 or more employees to make an “affirmative and bona fide effort” to accommodate employees religious practices

21 Workplace Religious Freedom Act (cont.) If signed into law it would: --- more strictly define “undue hardship” based on cost of lost productivity, the number of employees who would require accommodation and the difficulty and the cost for employers that have more than one facility or place of business

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