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ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD P.APPELBAUM ● DEBORAH CARR Fourth Edition Chapter 11: Families and Intimate Relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD P.APPELBAUM ● DEBORAH CARR Fourth Edition Chapter 11: Families and Intimate Relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD P.APPELBAUM ● DEBORAH CARR Fourth Edition Chapter 11: Families and Intimate Relationships

2 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 2

3 The big issues What do sociologists mean by family? What have families looked like across time and space? What are current trend in families in the United States and around the world? What are alternatives to traditional families? 3

4 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. What is “the family”? The family is a critical social institution that functions as part of society. The family is also a distinct social group with its own roles, patterns, and behaviors. Family is a cultural universal, though its structure varies across time and space. 4

5 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Family concepts Kinship Marriage Nuclear versus extended family Family of orientation versus procreation Monogamy versus polygamy 5

6 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Theory and family Functional theories see two primary roles of family: –Primary socialization of children –Personality stabilization of adults Feminist approaches often focus on the ways in which “traditional” models of family reinforce our system of gender inequality. 6

7 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Division of labor (DOL) in families The DOL in families is a frequent topic of concern for feminist scholars. Arlie Hochschild, The Second Shift (1989, with Anne Machung) Although both parents typically work outside the home today, it is women who do the bulk of the domestic work. 7

8 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The American family over time The structure of families has varied throughout U.S. history. Colonial families were organized around work and community obligation and were kept in line with highly structured authority. 8

9 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The American family over time With modernity came a separation of spheres for men and women: Men went to work for capitalists and women stayed in the home. –This was not a matter of choice. –Child labor was commonplace. The “traditional” 1950s family was less golden than current nostalgia suggests. –Example: Women often felt trapped in the home. 9

10 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Changes in families worldwide The spread of Western culture appears to be affecting families around the globe. –Example: increased attention to romantic love In some countries there have been systematic efforts by governments to alter family size and structure. Rural-urban migration has led to a change in family structure. Worldwide shift toward the nuclear family model 10

11 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Seven important global trends 1.Declining influence of clans and kin groups 2.Increasing freedom of mate selection 3.Expanding rights for women 4.Fewer kin marriages 11

12 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Seven important global trends 5. Increasing degree of sexual freedom 6. Declining birthrates 7. Increasing room for children’s rights 12

13 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Trends in U.S. families today Rising age at first marriage Increasing numbers of people living alone Sharp rise in cohabitation Increasing numbers of single-parent and stepfamilies Ongoing high rate of divorce Sharp rise in dual-earner families 13

14 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 14 Figure 11.1 Percentage of Twenty- to Twenty-Four- Year-Olds Who Have Never Married

15 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Other trends in families Only one-fifth of households are the “traditional” family. More people are living alone than ever before. Dual-career and single-parent families are now numerically normal. 15

16 Figure 11.2 The Changing Structure of American Families with Children © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.

17 Families in poverty Poor families often adapt by creating extensive kin and quasi-kin networks. –Pros and cons to this kind of support structure For poor, young women there is typically high value placed on having and raising children. –Children can elevate a woman’s social value and self-esteem 17

18 Figure 11.4 Divorce Rates in the United States © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.

19 After divorce Women and children often experience a significant decline in economic status. Men often experience an improved financial situation. The majority of divorced individuals will remarry. 19

20 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Effects on children There is disagreement on this topic among scholars of divorce and family. Some research—which is mostly psychological in nature—suggests that a period of initial trauma followed by adjustment is the norm. 20

21 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Effects on children Other research suggests that there continue to be deficits in some outcomes: –Education –Occupation –Future marital success The cause of these differences appears to be economic and social. 21

22 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Why so much divorce? Implementation of no-fault laws Declining stigma Less connection to extended family obligations or to property between families Women’s economic independence Unrealistic expectations plus an easy escape hatch 22

23 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Risk factors for divorce Which of these increase one’s risk of divorce? Which decrease risk? 1.Married at a young age (under age 21) 2.Have divorced parents 3.Lived with your romantic partner prior to marrying 4.Have been divorced at least once 5.Had a child prior to marrying 6.Have a childless marriage 7.Knew your partner for a short time prior to marrying 8.Experience financial hardship 9.Have less than a college degree 10.You and your partner are similar with respect to social class background, age, and religion 11.You or your partner is depressed 12.You or your partner frequently drinks alcoholic beverages 13.You fear disapproval from family and friends 14.You believe married people should stay together “for the sake of the kids” 23

24 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Risk factors for divorce IF YOU CHECKED YES: Married at a young age (under age 21)Increase risk Have divorced parentsIncrease risk Lived with your romantic partner prior to marryingIncrease risk Have been divorced at least onceIncrease risk Had a child prior to marryingIncrease risk Have a childless marriageIncrease risk Knew your partner for a short time prior to marryingIncrease risk Experience financial hardshipIncrease risk Have less than a college degreeIncrease risk You and your partner are similar with respect to Social class background, age, and religionDecrease risk You or your partner is depressedIncrease risk You or your partner frequently drinks alcoholic beveragesIncrease risk You fear disapproval from family and friendsDecrease risk You believe married people should stay together “for the sake of the kids”Decrease risk 24

25 Figure 11.5 Number of Single-Parent Families, in Millions © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.

26 Single-parent families Approximately half of children in the United States spend of part of childhood in single-parent families. These families are nearly always headed by women. There is a small movement of “single mothers by choice” made up of affluent, never-married women. For most, though, single parenting is related to divorce or factors related to poverty and deprivation. 26

27 Change in Cohabitation in the U.S. Total Unmarried Partners Living Together (Numbers in Millions) Source: Cohen 2010.Note: All data is for opposite sex couples. © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc.

28 Change in Cohabitation in the U.S. Total Unmarried Partners Living Together (Numbers In Millions) SOURCE: Cohen 2010 Note: All data if for opposite sex couples.

29 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Change in Cohabitation in the U.S. Percentage of 2010 Cohabitants SOURCE: Cohen 2010 Note: All data if for opposite sex couples. Ages 15–2938.8% WOMEN Ages 30–4432.4% Ages % Ages 15–2930.3% MEN Ages 30–4436.4% Ages % EMPLOYMENT Both in Labor Force 66.6% One in Labor Force 25.7% Neither in Labor Force 7.7% HOUSEHOLD INCOME Earn under $20, % Earn $20,000– $49, % Earn over $50, %

30 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Cohabitation About 50 percent of you will cohabit prior to marriage. Cohabitation is now understood as a stage in the relationship process preceding marriage. The main reason people give for cohabitation is to ensure future compatibility. Interestingly, statistics show that those who cohabit prior to marriage are more likely t o divorce. 30

31 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. 31 Figure 11.7 Reasons for Cohabiting

32 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Gay-parent families Despite ongoing dissent, there is slow movement toward acceptance of gay marriage and gay parenting. This shift is taking place globally: the Netherlands, Norway, Canada, Uruguay, the United Kingdom, and others have already legalized either civil unions or gay marriages. In the United States, only Florida prevents gay couples from adopting children. 32

33 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint Presentation for For more learning resources, please visit our online StudySpace at: © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Chapter 11: Families and Intimate Relationships

34 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 1. How was the pre-modern family in the United States different from the modern family? a. The pre-modern family was an extended family, and the modern family is nuclear. b. The pre-modern family was more stable than the modern family. c. The pre-modern family was only slightly larger than the modern family. d. The pre-modern family was one in which the father and the mother went out to work. 34

35 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 2. What is the family of orientation? a. The family of orientation is represented by childless couples. b. The family of orientation consists of the family into which a person is born. c. The family of orientation is represented by gay couples. d. The family of orientation is the family into which a person enters as an adult and within which children are raised. 35

36 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 3. Why are families worldwide today adopting a nuclear family form? a. Because of shortened life expectancy, there are fewer grandparents around to provide extended family relationships. b. Because of warfare, families find it easier to survive as nuclear families. c. Because of the spread of Western culture, more people today are exposed to the ideals of romantic love and the nuclear family. d. Because of the rise of highly centralized national governments, new laws are undermining extended families. 36

37 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 4. Which one of the following is true regarding important changes in families occurring worldwide? a. There is a general trend toward arranged marriages. b. The rights of women are becoming more suppressed. c. Kin marriages are becoming more common. d. Higher levels of sexual freedom are developing in societies that were very restrictive. 37

38 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 5. Which of the following is a reason for the steep increase in divorce rates in the 1960s and 1970s? a. Changes in the law made divorce available for the first time. b. With few exceptions, marriage no longer had much connection with the desire to perpetuate property and status from generation to generation. c. As men became more economically independent, marriage was less of a necessary economic partnership for them. d. The stigma of divorce increased, but this only affected women and not men. 38

39 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 6. Increases in cohabitation among younger people, increases in postsecondary school enrollment (especially among women), and women’s increased participation in the labor force are all explanations for the trend toward _____ in the last several decades. a. remarriage b. later marriage c. single motherhood d. later divorce 39

40 © 2013 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 7. The most recent victory for same-sex couples came in July 2011, when ______ became the sixth state to legalize gay marriage. a. Massachusetts b. Iowa c. New York d. California 40


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