Presentation on theme: "What 3 Factors helped spark the Industrial Revolution?"— Presentation transcript:
1What 3 Factors helped spark the Industrial Revolution? Agricultural Revolution- New farming techniques, New Technologies, made farming more productive and more food.Population Boom- As a product of the increase in food, more people survived and families got larger. This workforce also was forced to the cities by the success of the new Farming TechniquesNew Technologies- New technologies revolutionize the way things are produce. The invention of the steam engine changed the way work was powered, and new iron making techniques created stronger building materials.
2The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain OriginsAgricultural revolution – dikes, fertilizer, seed drill (Jethro Tull), alfalfa – enclosure – rich landowners fence in the land, small farmers forced to the cities – More food for the peopleCapital for investment – money economyMineral resources – coal and ironGovernment favorable to business - CapitalismMarkets – people demand new products
6Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization Cotton Industry – TextilesJohn Kay’s flying Shuttle, helped to increase the speeds at which weavers worked, in fact out pacing spinnersJames Hargreaves solved that with the Spinning Jenny which spun many threads at once.Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, which used water power to speed up spinning.
7Spinning Jenny invented by James Hargreaves spun multiple threads at one timethreads were still thick and broke easilyinvented in 1764
13Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization The Iron Industry – Henry BessemerPuddling, using coke to burn away impurities – iron ore to pure iron – Improved the steam engineIron Ore
19Focus QsDo any of the Conditions that were helpful to Britain in its development at this time still exist in America today?Do you think the model of the Industrial Revolution in England could help us in our own Economy now? How? Explain.
20Industrial Society in Europe population and migration – population explosion in Europe leads more and more people to live in the citieslife is tough in the city – inadequate housing and sanitation, disease and crimein rural areas serfdom is abolished in Prussia, Austria and Russia
21Labor Middle class benefits the most split of work force – some held steady jobs with good wages, others were the working poor who held jobs with low wages and poor conditionswage-labor force – proletarianization – workers labor becomes a commodity of the labor marketplaceguild system – an association of merchants or craftsmen that offered protection to its members and set rules for their works and productsStandard of living does increase – not much thoughconfection – goods, such as shoes, are produced in standard sizes rather than specifically for one customerled to more division of laborsometimes less wages and worker unrest
22Hardships of Early Industrial Life The Factory SystemRigid Discipline12-16 hour shiftsmen, women and childrenexhaustion led to many accidentsmany lost limbs, got black lung, white lung or diedWorkers were fired if they were sickThen went home to feed families and deal with sicknessLife was very hardWomen WorkersWorked same hours and made less
23Hardships of Early Industrial Life Many workers called for labor unionsEventually working class men gained the right to voteCon’s to the Industrial RevolutionLow pay initiallyUnemploymentDismal working conditionsSlums & DiseaseSocial problemsPro’s to the Industrial revolutionDemand for mass produced goodsMore jobs were availableWages eventually roseCost of travel fellOpportunities increased
24Labor LawsFactory Act Limited the hours worked by children to a maximum of 12 per day.Factory Act Children under 9 banned from working in the textiles industry and year olds limited to a 48 hour week. (2 hours of education)Factory Act Maximum of 12 hours work per day for Women.Factory Act Maximum of 10 hours work per day for Women and children.Factory Act Increased hours worked by Women and children to 10 and a half hours a day, but not allowed to work before 6am or after 6pm.Factory Act No worker allowed to work more than 56.5 hours per week.
28This is not FOG, Smog from the Pollution of Factories
29The FamilyIn the early factory system, roles in the family stayed mainly the same / fathers employed their wives and childrenWages for skilled laborers becomes high enough that some children are able to leave the factory and go to schoolMarriage - women would leave the workforce to live on her husband’s earnings once marriedPoor health care – hospitals were dangerous because risk of infection – Louis Pasteur
30Crime and Order during the Industrial Revolution as populations in the cities increased, so did crime rates, especially theft and arson – workers lived in slums/tenementsnew police forces – kept order, protected property and lives, investigated crime, apprehended offendersappeared in France in 1828in England in 1829 – the “bobbies”in Germany in 1848prison reforminstead of being housed together with all others, offenders of serious crimes are sent to transportation – to South Wales, Australiagoals of prisons change from punishment to reformprisoners isolated from each other – often led to mental health problemsprisoners learn skills or a tradesome of the worst British criminals sent to Devil’s Island in South America
31Think Questions:With what you know came out of the Industrial Revolution ( Developments, inventions, etc.) were these working conditions and the pain they caused worth it? Explain and justify your answer.If it would give similar advances in technology today, would you endorse these same types of working conditions in our country? Explain.
32Classical EconomistsThomas Malthus – contended in his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) – that population would outstrip food supply making conditions of working class worse – disease, famine, and warDavid Ricardo – Principles of Political Economy (1817) – saw viscous cycle in which wages were raised, population would increase, labor market would expand, lowering wages and producing fewer children.Jeremy Bentham – believed in utilitarianism – greatest happiness for the greatest amount of peopleAdam Smith – Free-market system will help the people -laissez-faire
33SocialismUtopian Socialists – often advocated for the creation of ideal communities and questioned capitalismRobert Owen – mill ownerEnvisioned workers living in communities where factory and farm shared their resources – child careNew Harmony, Indiana – fails due to quarrels amongst workersCommunism?
34Karl Marx and MarxismKarl Marx – believed class conflict will eventually lead to the triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie and the abolition of private property and social class – becomes to be known as MarxismFriedrich Engelspublished The Condition of the Working Class in England – presented a devastating picture of working conditions in industrial lifejoined with Marx to write Communist Manifesto – called for more radical change then socialism – the outright abolition of private property, rather than just the redistribution
35The Industrial Revolution Spreads Belgium follows Britain’s lead in the Industrial RevolutionGermany, France and the United States shortly followThe United States eventually becomes the leading Industrial Power in the world (Samuel Slater)Eastern nations did not Industrialize as fast as Western nationsRussia eventually Industrializes after a long period of social and political unrest
36The Industrial Revolution Spreads Western Nations become dominantCompanies began to hire scientists and researchers to make machines and products betterMost nations measured their success based on the amount of steel they outputtedNations started to experiment with chemicalsAlfred Nobel invents dynamite
37The Industrial Revolution Spreads In the Late 1800’s electricity replaced steam as the dominant source of Industrial powerAlessandro Volta – creates first batteryMichael Faraday – creates first dynamo (machine that generates electricity)Thomas Edison – creates first light bulbElectricity allowed factories to work after dark
38The Industrial Revolution Spreads Companies begin to design products with interchangeable partsAssembly Line createdBoth of these increased productionAutomobile Age beginsInvented in Germany by Nikolaus Otto, Karl Benz and Gottlieb DaimlerImproved upon by Henry FordPeople laughed at these “horseless carriages”Assembly Line Activity
39The Industrial Revolution Spreads Conquest of the AirOrville and Wilbur Wright flew the “Kitty Hawk” in 1903Commercial flight begins in the 1920’sRapid CommunicationSamuel Morse invents Morse code for telegraphAlexander Graham Bell invents the TelephoneGuglielmo Marconi invents the radio
40The Industrial Revolution Spreads New Directions for BusinessBusinesses began to sell stockCorporations begin to formA movement towards monopoliesMonopolies buy everything they can and eliminate the competitionOnce the competition is gone they can raise the prices to any level they wantSometimes monopolies would form together to form a cartelMany call for regulation against monopolies and cartelsIn your binder write about your opinion of monopolies and cartels
41The World of Cities Between 1800 and 1900 the world population doubles This is not because families were largerIt is because the death rate decreasedPeople ate better and medical advances allowed for thisGerm TheoryLouis Pasteur discovered the link between germs and diseaseHe also created vaccines for these germs and microbesCreated the process of pasteurization – filtering milk
42Medical Advancements.1846 anesthesia is introduced, which reduced pain during surgery.Early on hospitals themselves were dirty and dangerous places, were many patients died of infection.Florence Nightingale was one of the first to see the value of a sanitary environment.
43The World of Cities Florence Nightingale Urban Renewal Labor Unions Cleaned up hospital conditionsUrban RenewalRepairing the poor areas of citiesSidewalks, Sewers, Street Lights, Police & Fire Departments, Clean WaterSlums continued to exist in the poorest outskirts of citiesLabor UnionsFought for workers rightsHelped increase the standard of living
44Changing Attitudes and Values A new social orderFor the first time in history the upper class included the self made richYoung people had more of a choice who they marriedThe rights of women were promoted – woman’s suffragePublic education is promotedHigher education is promotedCharles Darwin – “The Origin of Species” – evolutionSocial Darwinism – survival of the fittest amongst peopleHelped encourage racism
45Quality of Life during Industrialization The Industrial Revolution brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. However, life for the poor and working classes continued to be filled with challenges. Wages for those who labored in factories were low and working conditions could be dangerous and monotonous. Unskilled workers had little job security and were easily replaceable. Children were part of the labor force and often worked long hours and were used for such highly hazardous tasks as cleaning the machinery. In the early 1860s, an estimated one-fifth of the workers in Britain’s textile industry were younger than 15. Industrialization also meant that some craftspeople were replaced by machines. Additionally, urban, industrialized areas were unable to keep pace with the flow of arriving workers from the countryside, resulting in inadequate, overcrowded housing and polluted, unsanitary living conditions in which disease was rampant. Conditions for Britain’s working-class began to gradually improve by the later part of the 19th century, as the government instituted various labor reforms and workers gained the right to form trade unions.