Presentation on theme: "What 3 Factors helped spark the Industrial Revolution? 1.Agricultural Revolution- New farming techniques, New Technologies, made farming more productive."— Presentation transcript:
What 3 Factors helped spark the Industrial Revolution? 1.Agricultural Revolution- New farming techniques, New Technologies, made farming more productive and more food. 2.Population Boom- As a product of the increase in food, more people survived and families got larger. This workforce also was forced to the cities by the success of the new Farming Techniques 3.New Technologies- New technologies revolutionize the way things are produce. The invention of the steam engine changed the way work was powered, and new iron making techniques created stronger building materials.
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Origins – Agricultural revolution – dikes, fertilizer, seed drill (Jethro Tull), alfalfa – enclosure – rich landowners fence in the land, small farmers forced to the cities – More food for the people – Capital for investment – money economy – Mineral resources – coal and iron – Government favorable to business - Capitalism – Markets – people demand new products
Enclosure Acts Increased farm production. Why?
Industrial Revolution in Britain by 1850
Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization Cotton Industry – Textiles John Kay’s flying Shuttle, helped to increase the speeds at which weavers worked, in fact out pacing spinners James Hargreaves solved that with the Spinning Jenny which spun many threads at once. Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, which used water power to speed up spinning.
Spinning Jenny invented by James Hargreaves spun multiple threads at one time – threads were still thick and broke easily
Water Frame - Arkwright
Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization The Steam engine – Coal=heat water=steam Newcomen Steam Engine
A Boulton and Watt Steam Engine
Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization The Iron Industry – Henry Bessemer – Puddling, using coke to burn away impurities – iron ore to pure iron – Improved the steam engine Iron Ore
Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization A Revolution in Transportation: Railroad James Watt improve the steam engine Britain had the 1 st major rail line in 1830 – cheaper goods
Technological Changes and New Forms of Industrial Organization Fulton’s steamboat – move up stream – faster and carry more
A British Textile Factory
Focus Qs Do any of the Conditions that were helpful to Britain in its development at this time still exist in America today? Do you think the model of the Industrial Revolution in England could help us in our own Economy now? How? Explain.
Industrial Society in Europe population and migration – population explosion in Europe leads more and more people to live in the cities life is tough in the city – inadequate housing and sanitation, disease and crime in rural areas serfdom is abolished in Prussia, Austria and Russia
Labor Middle class benefits the most split of work force – some held steady jobs with good wages, others were the working poor who held jobs with low wages and poor conditions wage-labor force – proletarianization – workers labor becomes a commodity of the labor marketplace guild system – an association of merchants or craftsmen that offered protection to its members and set rules for their works and products Standard of living does increase – not much though confection – goods, such as shoes, are produced in standard sizes rather than specifically for one customer – led to more division of labor – sometimes less wages and worker unrest
The Factory System – Rigid Discipline hour shifts men, women and children exhaustion led to many accidents many lost limbs, got black lung, white lung or died Workers were fired if they were sick Then went home to feed families and deal with sickness Life was very hard – Women Workers Worked same hours and made less Hardships of Early Industrial Life
Many workers called for labor unions Eventually working class men gained the right to vote Con’s to the Industrial Revolution – Low pay initially – Unemployment – Dismal working conditions – Slums & Disease – Social problems Pro’s to the Industrial revolution – Demand for mass produced goods – More jobs were available – Wages eventually rose – Cost of travel fell – Opportunities increased Hardships of Early Industrial Life
Labor Laws Factory Act Limited the hours worked by children to a maximum of 12 per day. Factory Act Children under 9 banned from working in the textiles industry and year olds limited to a 48 hour week. (2 hours of education) Factory Act Maximum of 12 hours work per day for Women. Factory Act Maximum of 10 hours work per day for Women and children. Factory Act Increased hours worked by Women and children to 10 and a half hours a day, but not allowed to work before 6am or after 6pm. Factory Act No worker allowed to work more than 56.5 hours per week.
This is not FOG, Smog from the Pollution of Factories
The Family In the early factory system, roles in the family stayed mainly the same / fathers employed their wives and children Wages for skilled laborers becomes high enough that some children are able to leave the factory and go to school Marriage - women would leave the workforce to live on her husband’s earnings once married Poor health care – hospitals were dangerous because risk of infection – Louis Pasteur
Crime and Order during the Industrial Revolution as populations in the cities increased, so did crime rates, especially theft and arson – workers lived in slums/tenements new police forces – kept order, protected property and lives, investigated crime, apprehended offenders – appeared in France in 1828 – in England in 1829 – the “bobbies” – in Germany in 1848 prison reform – instead of being housed together with all others, offenders of serious crimes are sent to transportation – to South Wales, Australia – goals of prisons change from punishment to reform – prisoners isolated from each other – often led to mental health problems – prisoners learn skills or a trade – some of the worst British criminals sent to Devil’s Island in South America
Think Questions: With what you know came out of the Industrial Revolution ( Developments, inventions, etc.) were these working conditions and the pain they caused worth it? Explain and justify your answer. If it would give similar advances in technology today, would you endorse these same types of working conditions in our country? Explain.
Classical Economists Thomas Malthus – contended in his Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) – that population would outstrip food supply making conditions of working class worse – disease, famine, and war David Ricardo – Principles of Political Economy (1817) – saw viscous cycle in which wages were raised, population would increase, labor market would expand, lowering wages and producing fewer children. Jeremy Bentham – believed in utilitarianism – greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people Adam Smith – Free-market system will help the people - laissez-faire
Socialism Utopian Socialists – often advocated for the creation of ideal communities and questioned capitalism Robert Owen – mill owner Envisioned workers living in communities where factory and farm shared their resources – child care New Harmony, Indiana – fails due to quarrels amongst workers Communism?
Karl Marx and Marxism Karl Marx – believed class conflict will eventually lead to the triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie and the abolition of private property and social class – becomes to be known as Marxism Friedrich Engels – published The Condition of the Working Class in England – presented a devastating picture of working conditions in industrial life – joined with Marx to write Communist Manifesto – called for more radical change then socialism – the outright abolition of private property, rather than just the redistribution
Belgium follows Britain’s lead in the Industrial Revolution Germany, France and the United States shortly follow The United States eventually becomes the leading Industrial Power in the world (Samuel Slater) Eastern nations did not Industrialize as fast as Western nations Russia eventually Industrializes after a long period of social and political unrest The Industrial Revolution Spreads
Western Nations become dominant Companies began to hire scientists and researchers to make machines and products better Most nations measured their success based on the amount of steel they outputted Nations started to experiment with chemicals – Alfred Nobel invents dynamite The Industrial Revolution Spreads
In the Late 1800’s electricity replaced steam as the dominant source of Industrial power – Alessandro Volta – creates first battery – Michael Faraday – creates first dynamo (machine that generates electricity) – Thomas Edison – creates first light bulb Electricity allowed factories to work after dark The Industrial Revolution Spreads
Companies begin to design products with interchangeable parts – Assembly Line created – Both of these increased production Automobile Age begins – Invented in Germany by Nikolaus Otto, Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler – Improved upon by Henry Ford – People laughed at these “horseless carriages” Assembly Line Activity The Industrial Revolution Spreads
Conquest of the Air – Orville and Wilbur Wright flew the “Kitty Hawk” in 1903 – Commercial flight begins in the 1920’s Rapid Communication – Samuel Morse invents Morse code for telegraph – Alexander Graham Bell invents the Telephone – Guglielmo Marconi invents the radio The Industrial Revolution Spreads
New Directions for Business – Businesses began to sell stock – Corporations begin to form – A movement towards monopolies Monopolies buy everything they can and eliminate the competition Once the competition is gone they can raise the prices to any level they want – Sometimes monopolies would form together to form a cartel – Many call for regulation against monopolies and cartels – In your binder write about your opinion of monopolies and cartels The Industrial Revolution Spreads
Between 1800 and 1900 the world population doubles – This is not because families were larger – It is because the death rate decreased People ate better and medical advances allowed for this – Germ Theory Louis Pasteur discovered the link between germs and disease He also created vaccines for these germs and microbes Created the process of pasteurization – filtering milk The World of Cities
Medical Advancements anesthesia is introduced, which reduced pain during surgery. Early on hospitals themselves were dirty and dangerous places, were many patients died of infection. Florence Nightingale was one of the first to see the value of a sanitary environment.
Florence Nightingale – Cleaned up hospital conditions Urban Renewal – Repairing the poor areas of cities – Sidewalks, Sewers, Street Lights, Police & Fire Departments, Clean Water – Slums continued to exist in the poorest outskirts of cities Labor Unions – Fought for workers rights – Helped increase the standard of living The World of Cities
A new social order – For the first time in history the upper class included the self made rich – Young people had more of a choice who they married – The rights of women were promoted – woman’s suffrage – Public education is promoted – Higher education is promoted – Charles Darwin – “The Origin of Species” – evolution – Social Darwinism – survival of the fittest amongst people Helped encourage racism Changing Attitudes and Values
Quality of Life during Industrialization The Industrial Revolution brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. However, life for the poor and working classes continued to be filled with challenges. Wages for those who labored in factories were low and working conditions could be dangerous and monotonous. Unskilled workers had little job security and were easily replaceable. Children were part of the labor force and often worked long hours and were used for such highly hazardous tasks as cleaning the machinery. In the early 1860s, an estimated one-fifth of the workers in Britain’s textile industry were younger than 15. Industrialization also meant that some craftspeople were replaced by machines. Additionally, urban, industrialized areas were unable to keep pace with the flow of arriving workers from the countryside, resulting in inadequate, overcrowded housing and polluted, unsanitary living conditions in which disease was rampant. Conditions for Britain’s working-class began to gradually improve by the later part of the 19th century, as the government instituted various labor reforms and workers gained the right to form trade unions.