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History and Medical Aspects of Students with Learning Disabilities Special Education terminology Reauthorization of IDEIA Organizations and practicing.

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Presentation on theme: "History and Medical Aspects of Students with Learning Disabilities Special Education terminology Reauthorization of IDEIA Organizations and practicing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 History and Medical Aspects of Students with Learning Disabilities Special Education terminology Reauthorization of IDEIA Organizations and practicing theories Brain functioning Unknown causes Attempted therapies (quick fixes) Recent medical findings

3 Warm-up Activity Is there any single cause to a LD? What are some examples of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes? Name a few results from brain research on students with LD. What are some aspects to different disorders? –Spoken language; written language; perceptual/motor Explain the chronology of the term learning disabilities. Were the earlier thoughts incorrect? What have been the outcomes of most LD treatments?

4 Special Education terminology LD; ID; EBD; ASD ADD or ADHD IEP IFSP; 504 plans LRE; REI IDEA and IDEIA EHA and ADA Explicit, systematic and direct, teacher-directed Others?

5 IDEA 1997 (longer lists from LDOnline on class site) Adding to PL and IDEA 1990 IEP –includes the general education teacher and increases the emphasis on the parent as a member –Requires an annual review –Emphasizes the general education curriculum first Transitional IEP –Established by age 16 –Statement needed by age 14

6 IDEA 1997 changes Discipline –Manifestation determination If not manifested by the disability then removal from placement cannot exceed 10 days –Functional behavioral assessment Required when a child has been removed more than 10 days –Positive behavior intervention plan Must be based on the FBA and teach replacement behaviors –Interim Alternative Educational Setting Up to 45 days; services and curriculum must match IEP needs; inappropriate behavior must be addressed

7 2004 IDEiA information IEPs Who comprises an IEP team Assessment - from discrepancy to RtI? Research-based v research-supported instruction Clarified 45 school days for removal in disciplinary situations and more… (see

8 © Witzel, Enlarging the 504 fine print Virtually all public school districts are covered by Section 504 because they receive some Federal financial assistance. Most public and private colleges and universities receive some type of Federal financial assistance also. The main difference between Section 504 and Title II of the ADA is that one applies to the recipients of grants from the Federal government (Section 504) and the other applies only to state and local public entities (Title II).Title II of the ADA The law also highlights organizations that are "principally engaged in the business of providing education, health care, housing, social services, or parks and recreation." Each Federal agency has its own set of Section 504 regulations that apply to its own programs and to the entities that receive Federal aid from them. These regulations generally include requirements for reasonable accommodation for employees with disabilities; program accessibility; effective communication with people who have hearing or vision disabilities; and accessible new construction and alterations. An agency does not have to provide an accommodation that would impose an undue hardship on the operation of the agency. In determining an undue hardship, the Federal agency is required to weigh the cost and type of the accommodation against the size, budget, and nature of the agency. The agency need not make an accommodation that would require significant difficulty or expense.

9 Organizations CEC CLD DLD LDA ADA Journals of interest: Remedial and Special Education; LD: Research and Practice; Exceptional Children; Journal of LD; Intervention in School and Clinic; Teaching Exceptional Children; Preventing School Failure; Phi Delta Kappan; Journal of Special Education Leadership; Journal of Special Education Technology

10 Practicing Theories Heterogeneity and Assessment Preschool and Post-secondary services Teaching practices REI to inclusion Collaboration and Professional Services Technology

11 Psycho-social concerns Minimal evidence of a direct connection. Thus, we are not certain which came first, the academic issues or the processing issue. However, what are likely concerns? –Bullied more often –Heavily influenced by peers –Increased anxiety –Depression May mirror that of students with ADHD (San Miguel, et al., 1996)

12 Brain Research and Neuropsychology MRI- magnetic resonance imaging shows size, shape, and location of brain structures fMRI- functional magnetic resonance imaging shows brain activity while people complete complex tasks PET- positron emission tomography measures metabolism with the brain thus determining glucose in the brain of a child with hyperactivity

13 Medical Aspects: Brain functions Correlational data Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas Motor development Memory Stimulations and stimulants nderstanding_the_brain.asphttp://www.articlesforeducators.com/dir/learning_disabilities/u nderstanding_the_brain.asp

14 Recent medical findings Poor readers share the same inactivity areas in the brain while reading difficult passages. Behavior has much to do with inputs and how brain processes reality. Neuron wiring changes with knowledge

15 Results on dyslexia Left parietal sulci emits lower energy for low memory Planum temporale is symmetric in dyslexic readers Frontal regions of the brain are more symmetric and smaller than other people’s Good readers use the front and back of their brains for phonological processing while students with dyslexia use only the front We need to teach using strategies effective at developing activity essential to parts of the brain (ie., connect sounds and symbols)

16 Medical Needs of Children The physical needs of children must be met before learning can be optimized Aside from brain development and wiring concerns, what other medical factors affect learning? –Hearing –Vision –Psychological

17 “Quick fixes” Pros and Cons of Ritalin; Cylert; Dexedrine (p ) Megavitamin Feingold diet Tinted lenses Perceptual training D.O.R.E. Scare and boot camp techniques

18 Where to go for more information.. Brain research – Lyon; Shaywitz Legal changes – National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities; LDOnline Technology – Evers Inclusion – Everington; Giangreco Any others???

19 Summary Why study instructional methods meant for students with learning disabilities? What do we know about the medical aspects of people with dyslexia? What behavioral aspects are explained in IDEA 1997 and 2004? How do some of the contemporary practices in special education affect students with learning disabilities?


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