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The Great Depression & The New Deal Chapters 22 & 23.

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Presentation on theme: "The Great Depression & The New Deal Chapters 22 & 23."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Great Depression & The New Deal Chapters 22 & 23

2 Study for test! Chapters 22 & 23

3 HOMEWORK: Due Friday Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal Identify the following important aspects of the New Deal New Deal Fireside Chats Glass-Steagall Act (especially the FDIC) Federal Securities Act Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Works Progress Administration (WPA) Social Security Act Starter: Write these Down!

4 STARTER: Friday, May 2 Read pages and answer the three questions below: What was Roosevelt’s “Black Cabinet? What did it do? Why didn’t Roosevelt support full civil rights for African Americans? How did New Deal policies affect Native Americans? Read “Historical Spotlight: Deportation of Mexican Americans” on page 712 and answer the question below: Why do you think Mexican Americans were met with hostility during the Depression?

5 Writers __________ Radio Stars__________ Painters__________ Movie Stars__________ GROUP 3

6 Video 1.What was the Bonus Army? 2.What happened during Roosevelt’s first 100 days? 3.How did Hitler violate the Treaty of Versailles? 4.What was FDR’s stance on the war when World War II began in Europe? 5.What was life like in the cities during the Great Depression? 6.What segments of the population supported the President’s plan to get us out of the Great Depression? 7.What did the CCC do?

7 8.What was the Dust Bowl? 9.What group was most effected by the Great Depression? Why? 10.Who was John L. Lewis? 11.What games were played during the 30s? 12.How did Jesse Owens upset Hitler’s hopes for the 1936 Olympics? 13.Who was the first woman appointed to the cabinet? 14.What was the cause of the “crime crack down” of the 1930s? 15.Who was the most famous woman of the 1930s? Why?

8 16.What was the newsreel? 17.What was public reaction to “The War of the Worlds”? 18.Who was the most famous aviator of the 30s? 19.What did the Public Works Administration do? 20.What was the dance craze of the 30s?

9 The Great Depression & The New Deal Get out your packet, your homework from the night before last, and pass up your starter notebook to be graded!

10 “What Would You Do?” It is 1929 and the U.S. economy has collapsed. Farms, businesses, and banks nationwide are failing, causing massive unemployment and poverty. You are out of work with little prospect of finding a job. What would you do to feed your family? What can you do to find a paying job? What can unemployed and impoverished people do to help each other?

11 Causes & Effects of the Great Depression Chapter 22, Section 1 (Write the question & the answer!) 1.Why did key basic industries lose business? 2.Why did the coal mining industry suffer? 3.Why did the farming industry grow weak? 4.Why did more Americans start living on credit? 5.Why did the uneven distribution of income affect producers of goods? 6.What advantage did Hoover have over Smith in the Presidential election of 1928? NEXT SLIDE

12 7.What is meant by a “bull market”? 8.Explain what is meant by buying stocks on “speculation” and “buying on margin”. 9.What did shareowners do with their stocks in September/October of 1929? 10.What was Black Tuesday? 11.Why did banks fail after the stock market crash? 12.Why did the Great Depression impact Europe as well? NEXT SLIDE

13 Watch the video “Broke, but not Broken” & answer these questions 1.What choices did Ann Marie Low’s family make during the Depression? Do you agree with their choices? Explain. 2.What did you learn about the relationship between the government & farmers? 3.What did the older Ann Marie Low’s comments add to your understanding of the Great Depression? NEXT SLIDE

14 Chapter 22, Section 2 Complete the chart, describing the hardships faced during the Great Depression HARDSHIPDESCRIPTION Life in the Cities The Dust Bowl Men in the Streets Women Struggle Children Face Hardships Social/Psychological Effects NEXT SLIDE

15 Chapter 22, Section 3 Write the questions and the answers Hoover & the Depression 1.What did Hoover believe was the government’s chief function during the Depression? 2.Why did Hoover oppose federal welfare? 3.Name three ways Americans protested Hoover’s efforts to get the nation out of the Depression? 4.What were some of the projects Hoover proposed to get the nation out of the Depression? How effective were they? 5.What did Hoover ultimately do about the Bonus Army? NEXT SLIDE

16 Great Depression & New Deal Packet “What Would You Do?” Chapter 22, Section 1 Questions “Broke but not Broken” Video Questions Chapter 22, Section 2 Chart Chapter 22, Section 3 Questions STOP! You’re done!

17 Why did key basic industries lose business? Older industries gave way to the industries of new technologies Example: the railroad industry (and those industries associated with it) gave way to the automobile industry The end of the war led to the decrease in business for some industries New sources of energy replaced old sources of energy

18 Why did the coal mining industry suffer? New sources of energy were used, including hydroelectric power, fuel oil, and natural gas

19 Why did the farming industry grow weak? End of the war led to less demand for crops Farmers had taken out loans during the war and when demand fell and crop prices fell, farmers went in debt Farms were lost and they defaulted on their loan

20 Why did more Americans start living on credit? People were buying less due to high prices, stagnant wages, an uneven distribution of income, and overbuying on credit People lived on credit so they could have new items. When you purchased items on credit, you would have to pay interest charges People went into debt

21 Why did the uneven distribution of income affect producers of goods? Many people could not afford expensive goods, such as refrigerators

22 What is meant by a “bull market”? A period of rising stock prices Americans were rushing to buy stocks during a “bull market”

23 Explain what is meant by buying stocks on “speculation” and “buying on margin”. Speculation: Buying a stock/bond on the hopes of a quick return (profit) on your investment Buying on Margin: paying only a small percentage of what the stock is worth; or, only putting a down payment down on the stock & borrowing the rest from a bank Very little regulation of the stock market existed & the government did not interfere

24 What did shareowners do with their stocks in September/October of 1929? They sold them as quickly as they could because they suspected the stock market would crash

25 What was Black Tuesday? The day (October 29, 1929) the stock market crashed 16.4 million shares were dropped that day & many could not find buyers People who had bought stocks were either left in debt or their savings were gone Within a few weeks, $30 billion was lost buy investors

26 Why did banks fail after the stock market crash? Many banks failed because they had no money… they had used people’s money to invest in the stock market as well! At this time, the government had not started to protect & insure the money in the banks DIGITAL ESSAY

27 Why did the Great Depression impact Europe as well? Europe was still trying to recover from the war Many nations were trying to pay off war debts & Germany was paying reparations America limited imports to protect its economy (Hawley-Smoot Tariff) In return, other nations did not buy our products

28 HARDSHIPDESCRIPTION Life in the Cities The Dust Bowl Men in the Streets

29 HARDSHIPDESCRIPTION Life in the Cities Unemployment; Homelessness; Shanytowns created called “Hoovervilles”; Hunger led to soup kitchen & bread lines; Higher unemployment for African Americans & Latinos (in addition to violence, discrimination, deportation) The Dust Bowl Overproduction of crops & destroying of the prairie grass in the Plain; Drought & winds led to dust flying 100s of miles; People (Okies) in the Dust Bowl moved to California looking for work Men in the Streets Men couldn’t support their families (some men abandoned their families); They took to the streets daily looking for work; Hobos; No direct relief was available at this time

30 HARDSHIPDESCRIPTION Women Struggle Children Face Hardships Social/Psycho- logical Effects

31 HARDSHIPDESCRIPTION Women Struggle Canned food; Sewed clothes; Some worked outside the home, but this caused resentment because there were so many men without jobs Children Face Hardships Poor health; School closings; Worked in factories; teens became “Hoover tourists” Social/Psycho- logical Effects Suicides; Mental hospitals; Sacrifices made; People became determined not to be poor again; Kindness shown to strangers

32 What did Hoover believe was the government’s chief function during the Depression? To foster cooperation between conflicting groups and interests The government should step in to solve problems, but not force cooperation

33 Starter: Monday, May 5 Get out your Great Depression Packet Get your starter notebook & homework notebook that are already graded

34 Why did Hoover oppose federal welfare? He believed hand-outs would weaken people’s self-respect & “moral fiber” He believed America was based on “individualism” and it was not the job of the government to take care of individuals and their families Individuals (people, charities, local organizations) should pitch in to help, not the government

35 Name three ways Americans protested Hoover’s efforts to get the nation out of the Depression? 1.The Republicans (Hoover’s party) were voted out of Congress in the 1930 elections 2.Farmers burned and dumped their crops rather than sell them at a loss 3.Farmers blocked roads to prevent food from getting to market 4.A negative view of Hoover developed: 1.Shantytowns were called “Hoovervilles”; 2.Newspapers were called “Hoover blankets”; 3.Empty pockets (inside out) were called “Hoover flags”

36 What were some of the projects Hoover proposed to get the nation out of the Depression? How effective were they? 1.Boulder Dam- successful in getting power and water to California; aided in agricultural production 2.Federal Home Loan Bank Act- lowered mortgage rates & allowed farmers to refinance their loans 3.Reconstruction Finance Corporation- offered financing to businesses, believing this would help average people; this was unsuccessful and was seen a “too little, too late”

37 What did Hoover ultimately do about the Bonus Army? Tear gassed, troops moved in with bayonets, fires were started, people were shot. People were stunned at the government’s response to these veterans

38 Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal Identify the following things that are not important aspects of the New Deal New Deal Fireside Chats Glass-Steagall Act (especially the FDIC) Federal Securities Act Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Works Progress Administration (WPA) Social Security Act

39 New Deal Roosevelt’s program for getting the nation out of the Great Depression He wanted to give the American people a “New Deal” Three goals: –Relief for the needy –Economic recovery –Financial reform

40 Fireside Chats Roosevelt gave “fireside chats” to keep the nation informed on issues of public concern He gave these national addresses of the radio & Americans felt he was speaking directly to them!

41 Glass-Steagall Act (especially the FDIC) Glass-Steagall Act established the FDIC The FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) provided government insurance for individual bank accounts up to $5,000 This made people feel their money was safe Banks also had to act cautiously with their customer’s money

42 Federal Securities Act This law provided regulation of the stock market Corporations are required to provide complete information regarding their stock offerings

43 Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) The government regulated the amount of crops produced By doing this, crop prices rose because production was lowered The government paid farmers NOT to cultivate all of their land This did help farmers have more money because prices increased This law was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (they stated that agriculture was a local matter, not a federal matter)

44

45 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) A work relief program that put young men (18-25) to work building roads, developing parks, planting trees, and helping in soil erosion and flood control They helped plant trees in the Great Plains to prevent another Dust Bowl Workers were paid in cash and they ate and lived for free

46 Our greatest task is to put people to work. This is no unsolveable problem if we face it wisely and courageously. It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the Government itself, treating the task as we would treat the emergency of war, but at the same time, through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our national resources. —Franklin D. Roosevelt 4 March 1933

47 National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Law that established fair practices in industry (ex. Set prices of many products and established standards) Law that established jobs to construct schools and other community buildings This law was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court (it gave the executive branch legislative power)

48 Works Progress Administration (WPA) A series of programs to help youths, professionals and others find employment Worked in construction, collect historical material, & gave aid to students to go to school

49 Social Security Act Probably the most important achievements of the New Deal Provides the following –Retirement –Unemployment compensation –Aid to families with dependent children & the disabled

50 Social Security Act Probably the most important achievements of the New Deal Provides the following –Retirement –Unemployment compensation –Aid to families with dependent children & the disabled

51 The Legacy of the New Deal The government actively participated in regulating the economy People were given direct relief from the government The government went into debt from all of the government spending What really ended the Great Depression was… World War II started The economy got a massive boost from the production of war supplies!

52 Test Review Causes of the Great Depression (condition of farmers, investing in the stock market, buying on credit= people were in debt) Life during the Depression (Dust Bowl, shantytowns, women, men in streets, charity) Hoover’s administration (leave the econ. Alone, Bonus army, criticisms) New Deal programs Significance of the New Deal


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