2ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION Durian is native to Southeast Asia, wild durian is found in Borneo and sumatra. The tree found in home garden. But in Thailand largerly grown in orchard. In Indonesia some places are start to grow in orchard.Other countries are Sri Lanka, India and New Guinea, Vietnam, The Philippine, Malaysia and Thailand.
3USES1. The ripe fruits or arils are generaly eaten fresh. The boiled or roasted are also eaten as snack. In Indonesia some flesh also dried in vaccum condition as snack, some as a mixture of ice cream, kolak and dodol/jenang durian. The skin/rind are dried as fuel for cooking. Several part of the fruit used as medicine.
4USES1. According to popular belief is danger for people because causes sickness or even death who consume durian in conjunction with alcohol.2. Do not scare to eat fat of avocado and durian because the fat belongs to the monounsaturated fat (Lemak tak jenuh yang menyehatkan).jenis lemaki ni sama baiknya dengan minyak zaitun, minyak wijen dan lemak omega dalam minyak ikan.
5PRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE Thailand is he largest durian production. In 1987/1988 with 444,500 ton from 84,700 ha; Indonesia with 200,000 ton and Malaysia with 42,000 ha yielded 262,000 ton.
6PROPERTIES1.The edible portion (the arils) represent 20 – 35% of the fruit weight. The flesh and seed are very nutritious being rich in carbohydrates, vitamines and minerals.2. Each 100 gram of the flesh contains: water 67 g, protein 2.5 g,fat 2.5 g, carbohydrates 28.3, fibre 1.4 g, ash 0.8 g, calcium 20 mg, phosphorus 63 mg, potassium 601 mg, thiamne 0.27 g, riboflavine 0.29 mg and vitamineC 57 mg. The energy value is 520nkJ/100 g. the odour of the fruit stem is largerly from thiols or thioether esters or sulphides.
7DESCRIPTION1. The tree is large up to 40 m height. Flower appear from old branches, forming fascicles of corymbs of 3 – 30 flowers up to 15 cm, pedicel 5-7 cm, appear at first, second or third branches. Flowers 5-6 cm, about 2 cm in diameter, whitish or greenish-white, calyx tubular, 3 cm long with 5-6 triangular teeth; etal 5, stamens numerous, united in five bundles, style pubescent. Fruit a globose, ovoid or ellipsoid capsule, up to 25 cm long with 20 cm diameter, green brownis, or yellowish covered with sharp spines, valves usualy 5, thick fibrous.Seeds up to 4 cm long covered by white, yellow or pink soft, very swet aril.
8GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1.The seed will be germinated during 3-8 days after sowing. The seeds are recalcitrant. The seedling grow fast with orthotropic (upright). Under favourable conditions some plagitropic laterals are formed. This branches compete with the orthotropic one and the piramydal shape of the young tree is getting lost.2. The embryo is positioned at the tip of the seed. The radicle merges first growing downward. The plumule the grow up with perhaps needs some energy to independent from the hard seed coat. Some seedling fail to get out from the seed coat and death.
9GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 3. Shoot growth appears to be continous, peaks in the rate of growth giving rise to 3-5 flushes per year. Soon the smalest lateral branches die back and this loss of branches throughout the tree’s life.4. The juvenile phase often lasts 7 – 12 years.5. The fruit season seems to delay due to the altitude. In Pare when the altitude higher than Kasembon and Ngantang furuit earlier followed by Kasembon and Ngantang.
10GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 6. The flowering season seems to be determined by the temperatures during its growth i.e following a cool or dry period. This hypothesis suggest that some of cultivars flowers twice a year. But, the peak fruit season is usually once a year. In Kasembon, there is one type named Sepanjang Musim that flower back after the harvesting of the fruits. When the fruits are finished thaen followed by the second fruits in a size of 2-5 cm in diameter
11GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 7. Growth retardants such paclobutrazol with low doses is used to promote flowering in Thailand and some part of Malang (Wagir).8. The flower opens in the late afternon; before midnight most pollen grain and calyx, petals and stamens are shed. The stigma receptive until early morning and pollination is accomplished by nectarivorous bars and possibly by moths. The role of wind as natural polinator are still unclear. Self-incompatibility is common.
12GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 9. The fruit rowth curve is sigmoid, in Thailand early cultivars are harvested days after bloom, the late cultivars after 130 days or more. In Peninsular Malaysia the fruit is abundant between June and August. Durian harvest in Pare which its altitude lower than Kasembon and Ngantang is earlier than the two places.
13OTHER BOTANICAL INFORMATION Since the year of 1994? The department of agric has released 67 good cultivars, but no one has been developed extensively. Since the cultivars have been released is important to grow these . But, it seem that good planting material are difficult to propagate vegetatively, i.e by grafting and other methods.Durian research center (DRC) of Brawijaya University has planned to develop grafting method and tissue culture. This aim to only propagate the released cultivars in a large number.The DRC has found some promising new cultivars: Jingga, Ori, SPM, Arab. We plan to develop these cultivar and give to the farmers. In the future these promising cultivars can be bought in the supermarket.
14ECOLOGYDurian is strictly tropical; its grown until 800 m asl, from equator to 18º north and south (Thailand and Quensland). Need well distributed rainfall of 1,500 mm or more, relatively dry spells stimulate and synchronize flowering.The soil should be deep, well-drained and light rather than heavy, to limit tree losses from root rot. A shelthered site is desirable to prevent branches laden with fruit from breaking in gusty winds.
15PROPAGATION AND PLANTING In Indonesia durian is still largerly raised from seeds. In the Philippines propagation from seed is being replaced by inarching or cleft grafting. In Thailand use inarching and hypocotyl grafting, using potting 5-6 weeks with mini-scions cut from thin laterals of flushing shoots. Fungicide treatments and polyethylene tunel and heavy shade are needed to protect the tender tissues. Five skill workers can set 3000 grafts, working from 8 a.m to midnight, avoiding the heat of the day is said to be an important factor in achieving success rates above 90%.The plant can be set out in the field after about one year. Shade is needed at the first year. At closest spacing the orchard may need to be thinned after 8 – 10 years.Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University formed Durian Research Center in April But, research on durian have been initiated in 2-3 years backwards. In the year 2008, we found some of promising durian local in Kecamatan Kasembon namely ‘Jingga’, Ori, Arab and sepanjang musim (fruiting twice a year). The delicious taste of Jingga has been eaten by the President SBY and is wife, Ani Yudhoyono.The local exelent durian mentioned above are now being propagated clonally using cleft-grafting method in our faculty. We hope that during 3-5 years forwards these cultiars can be found in the supermarket.So far there are 67 of durian locals that have been released by minister of agriculture of RI , but none of these cultivars are found in the market or even supermarket.
16PROPAGATION AND PLANTING 1. Now we are tryng to propagate these cultivars by tissue culture tecnique. If this method succeed than we will produce plating material in a large number and then deliver to their origin or their own habitat.
17Beberapa Potensi dan Peluang: Nutrisi relatif lebih tinggi dari buah lainWilayah indonesia 95º BT-141º BTPasar masih terbukaPeluang pasar baru; China 1,3 Milyar pendudukAreal pengembangan luas; utk konservasi lahanMengisi pasar khusus (niche market)Diversifikasi produkCiri organoleptik baru (warna atraktif): produk olahan minimal
21DURIAN PRODUCTION EACH PROVINCE (TON) 20002001200220032004200520062007TOTAL/AVERAGE1. NAD6,94611,80728,42231,31543,28239,38657,12029,442247,7202. SumUt18,99040,53063,20199,442111,174110,751125,742126,211696,0413. SumBar10,42114,21540,19343,64041,08546,50047,78826,524270,3664. Riau11,30911,35812,86023,85715,6227,27312,6968,739103,7145. Jambi5,25922,53123,23737,33948,40115,82619,22311,987183,8036. SumSel14,43938,22581,55182,63347,52229,00044,16015,390352,9207. Bengkulu2,8495,9904,54034,16019,5302,59036,79521,190127,6448. Lampung5,95410,30318,38515,27711,35717,70318,47227,863125,3149. BangTung1,8723,0022,5725,0012,8054,2772,3212185010. KepRi33170203
22DURIAN PRODUCTION EACH PROVINCE (TON) 20002001200220032004200520062007TOTAL/AVERAGE11. DKI Jak.158266803152802589867152212. JaBar36,63429,12339,63695,37260,76034,45989,42059,831445,23513.JaTeng26,98926,58735,96846,78545,73234,41062,63244,948324,05114. DIY2,9232,5037,0256,0277,8637,2624,9105,27743,79015. JaTim37,15640,56446,62758,47241,55353,10149,72179,187406,38116. Banten11,9604,75117,58119,60211,09519,16316,72910088117. Bali4,0088,4975,0146,3348,77613,7613,7048,02758,1218. NTB1,1841,4561,2761,5243,9204,8405,6935,47525,36819. NTT160251501951422495715182136
23DURIAN PRODUCTION EACH PROVINCE (TON) 20002001200220032004200520062007TOTAL/AVERAGE20. KalBar16,74515,11127,17549,44341,39642,45539,60416,959248,88821. KalTeng5,7727,2358,2659,43710,1257,7092,8434,92556,31122. KalSel6,70111,70710,1289,86419,5777,02013,6184,67383,28823. KalTim1,6377,16319,58721,22824,24415,94714,2658,122112,19324. SulUt1,3662,68310,27710,96511,8339,97211,22210,48968,80725. SulTeng1,5522,9673,9622,5656,81813,1217,1474,57942,71126. SulSel13,40116,50721,98624,04822,42029,79630,46533,549192,172SulTra7381,6613,6085,7032,3731,4673,6232,7092188228. Gontalo439872582482453132471837SulBar4,8023,0137815Maluku3,4593,0971,9501,6933,2442,6906,9288,12331,184Papua441462,2043,1611,5781022982,90710440MalUt364176264441,7674,1932,245965633. PapBar2,6446,3092,40911362