2 ※Definitions and Purposes: A dependent clause introduced by an adverbial subordinator.Used to modify the verb of the independent clause and to indicate time, place, reason, and so forth. It is also used to show contrast.
4 ※ Simple punctuation:adverbial clauses are placed before and after an independent clause.Ex. Because scientists are interested in the planets, they send spacecraft to orbit them.Scientists send spacecraft to orbit the planets so that humans can learn more about the universe.
7 ※Time Clauses: (when, while, as soon as, after, before, until, etc.) Ex. Everyone should know what to do. An earthquake strikes.Everyone should know what to do when an earthquake strikes.
8 ※Test Yourselves: 1. If you are inside, move away from windows, and get under a desk or table, or stand in adoorway. You feel the floor begin to shake.2. Try to stay calm. The earthquake is happening.3. Don’t move. The floor stops shaking.4. You are sure the earthquake is over. You may beginto move around.5. You have checked carefully for fallen power lines.You may go outside.
9 ※Place Clauses: (wherever, where, everywhere, anywhere, etc.) Ex. People prefer to shop. Credit cards are accepted.People prefer to shop where credit cards are accepted.
10 ※Test Yourselves: 1. Consumers have a tendency to buy more. Credit cards are accepted for payment ofmerchandise.2. You cannot use credit card. You shop.3. There are a few places of business. A creditcard is not accepted.4. They are accepted. Travelers can only usecredit cards in foreign countries.
11 ※Manner (how), Distance (how far), and Frequency Clauses (how often): Ex. The demonstrators left as the police hadordered. (manner)The students completed the experiment as quickly as they could. (manner)Pat jogs on the beach as far as she can. (distance)Kathleen spoke as if (as though) she were an authority on the subject. (manner)
12 ※ Test Yourselves:1. The public must conserve energy _______ the president has requested. (manner).2. Many Americans want to move _______ they can from polluted cities. (distance)3. We should not consume our natural resources _____ we have in the past. (manner:wastefully)4. Citizens should make a strong effort to conserve all natural resources ___ thegovernment has advised.5. No nation in the would can afford to act ___ pollution were not its problem.(manner: as if/as though)6. The EPA must remind people ______ they can about the dangers of pollution.(frequency)
13 ※Reason Clauses: (because, since, as) Ex. Europeans are in some ways better environmentalists than North Americans because they are more used to conserving energy.Since many Europeans live, work, and shop in the same locale, they are quite accustomed to riding bicycles, trains, and streetcars to get around.As the price of gasoline has always been quite high in Europe, if a European owns an automobile, it is likely to be a high-mileage model that uses diesel fuel.
14 ※Test Yourselves:1. Europeans experienced hardship and deprivation during andafter World War II. They are used to conserving.2. European nations are trying to reduce the level of carbondioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide in the atmospherecauses global warming.3. Coal pollutes the air and gives off a lot of carbon dioxide.Most European nations have switched to natural gas toproduce electricity.4. In the United States, in contrast, 56% of the nation’selectricity is generated by burning coal. Coal is cheap andplentiful.
15 ※Result Clauses:(so that, such + noun that, so much/many + noun phrase that, so little/few + noun phrase that)Ex. New textbooks are so expensive that many students buy used ones.There is always so much noise in the dormitory that I can’t study there.There were so many students waiting in line to register for classes that I decided to come back later.
16 ※Test Yourselves: 1. The Ancient Peru exhibit was popular. It was held for over two weeks. (so that)2. The artifacts were of historic value. Anthropologistsfrom several universities came to study them. (suchthat)3. There were many exhibits. We couldn’t see all of them. (so many that)
17 ※Purpose Clauses:(so that, in order that [formal] + modals: can/could, will/would, etc.)Ex. Farmers use chemical pesticides so that they can grow bigger harvests.Farmers also spray their fields in order that consumers might enjoy unblemished fruits and vegetables.
18 ※Test Yourselves: 1. Chemicals are used in many food products. They will stay fresh longer.2. They can produce organic crops. Somefarmers use only natural pest control methods.3. They might avoid potential health risks. Theyprefer eating organic food.
19 ※Concession (unexpected result) clauses: (although, even though, though)Ex. Although I studied all night, I failed the test.I failed the test although I studied all night.
20 ※Test Yourselves: 1. She’s a famous star. She’s unhappy. (even though: for emphasis)2. Beethoven wrote some of the Westernworld’s greatest music. He became totally deafin mid-life.3. Abraham Lincoln became one of the greatpresidents of the United States. He came fromhumble origins.
21 ※Contrast (direct opposites) Clauses: (while, whereas [formal]; a comma is needed in both cases)Ex. San Francisco is very cool during the summer, whereas San Juan is extremely hot.While San Juan is extremely hot during the summer, San Francisco is very cool.
22 ※Test Yourselves: 1. The West Coast suffered a severe drought. The East Coast had a rainfall.2. Smokers claim the right to smoke in publicplaces. Nonsmokers claim the right to clear air.3. College graduates with degrees in technology are indemand. Graduates with degrees in music are not.
24 ※More Writing Practice: Ex. I reviewed my class notes before I took the final exam. (time)1. I bought all of my textbooks ________________. (time)2. Tom rode on the subway ________________. (distance)3. _____________ he company hired me. (reason)4. I study in the library ____________. (purpose)5. Tom wanted to become a doctor ____________. (concession)6. Water shortage is a thorny issue _________. (place)7. City living is stressful _____________. (contrast/directionopposition)