Presentation on theme: "18 th Century Social and Economic Change The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions."— Presentation transcript:
18 th Century Social and Economic Change The Dawn of the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions.
Economic and demographic changes 1700, 80% of western Europeans were farmers; higher % in eastern Europe Most people lived in poverty. Significant population growth until 1650; slows down until 1750 when it starts to dramatically rise again.
Population Explosion after 1750 Limits to population growth before 1700: - famine, disease, war Reasons for population growth: disappearance of plague improved sanitation, improved transportation for food distribution (canal and road building in western Europe), increased food supply (esp. potato).
Falling Death Rates With the exception of England, birth rates did not significantly rise, but death rates fell. A better nourished population (due to better weather, better agricultural practices, and better transport) led to people living longer.
Impact of Profit Inflation Inflation due to rising population and increased demand. “Profit inflation” stimulated economic growth. By the end of the 18 th century, prices outperform wages, leading to hardship for the poor, particularly in France. Wealth moved more and more from the poor to the wealthy due to high rents and low wages Regressive tax structure that put the burden on the poor in France and much of the continent caused hardship and led to financial crises.
Protoindustrialization Cottage Industries: first and foremost a family enterprise (also called “putting-out” system) - Occurred during Agricultural Revolution Putting-out system: city manufacturers took advantage of cheaper labor in the countryside increased rural population eager to supplement agricultural income. began to challenge urban craft industry
The European Linen Industry
Economic Innovation Changes in Structure and Performance: Performance – measured by output; generally identified through per capita productivity. Structure – characteristics that support performance (laws, tax policies, technology, population, etc.)
Adam Smith Smith criticized both guild and mercantile-based economic systems as restraining. Promoted liaise-faire (i.e. classical liberalism) ideology in The Wealth of Nations (1776). Free market economy based on division of labor and the fewest government restrictions as possible
Why Britain? Large supplies of coal and iron. Navigable waterways and access to the sea. Expansion of roads (macadam in Britain, corvee in France). Merchants had surplus capital from commercial revolution for investment. Gov’t policies favorable to merchants (property rights, taxes, banking system) Cultural innovation (dissenters) and free market ideas. High standard of living; growing population driving demand.
Cotton Demand for cheap cotton goods at home and abroad made textiles the first to industrialize. Cotton was cheap (slave labor) and durable. “Putting-out” system could not keep up with demand (lack of organization, distance between workers); this required new system
Factory System The organization of labor in one location allowed for increased production. The location of factories near rivers and/or seaports allowed for the transportation of goods to be easier and provided power supplies. Location in urban areas provided cheap labor supply. Introduction of machines increased per capita production.
Inventions 1733, John Kay: flying shuttle 1764, James Hargreaves: spinning jenny 1769, Richard Arkwright: water frame, which improved thread spinning. 1780s, Edmund Cartwright: steam engine to power looms; factory production of textiles. 1793, Eli Whitney, cotton gin
The Steam Engine 1700 – Thomas Savery invents steam pump. 1712 – Thomas Newcomen built steam engine to pump water from mines. 1769 – James Watt creates more efficient steam engine. By 1800, steam power was being used to power looms in factories across Britain.
Before the Agricultural Revolution open-field system: greatest accomplishment of Medieval agriculture village agriculture; 1/3 to ½ of fields lay fallow. Common land: used by village for livestock – fields shared by peasants. serfs in eastern Europe were worst off; many sold with lands (like slavery)
The Agricultural Revolution Agricultural Revolution: major milestone in human civilization impact of the scientific revolution’s experimental method was great Application of scientific ideas - crop rotation most important feature.
Enclosure Movement end to common lands and open-field system agriculturalists (land owners) consolidated lands and closed them off game laws in England prohibited peasants from hunting game caused considerable friction in the countryside in 17 th and 18 th centuries
Impact of Enclosure traditional view of enclosure (Marx): poor people driven off the land recent scholarship: negative impact of enclosure may have been exaggerated As much as 50% of lands enclosed already by 1750 (much by mutual consent) 1700: ratio of landless farmer to landowner = 2:1; not much greater in 1800
Low Countries Netherlands and Belgium (Austrian Netherlands) took the lead in agricultural innovations Increased population meant more food had to be produced Cornelius Vermuyden: important in drainage of swamp lands into useful farm land. Huge impact on southern England.
England Viscount Charles Townsend ( ): improved soil by crop rotation (turnips) Bog and marshes drained extensively, manured heavily, regular crop rotation w/o fallowing Jethro Tull ( ): seed drill; more efficient than scattering seeds by hand Robert Bakewell ( ) selective breeding of ordinary livestock (animal husbandry): created larger animals.
Atlantic Economy in the 17 th and 18 th Centuries Characteristics World trade became fundamental Spain and Portugal revitalized their empires and began drawing more wealth from renewed development. Netherlands, Great Britain, and France benefited most; Great Britain the leading maritime power. Britain’s commercial leadership based on mercantilism Navigation Laws: aimed to reduce Dutch trade in Atlantic region (1 st in 1651, Cromwell)
Atlantic Slave Trade Basis of the Triangular Trade System. Nearly 10 million transported. Millions more died in the ordeal. In the 1780s, European participation died off, but it was not outlawed by Britain until 1807.
South Sea Bubble South Sea Bubble: responsible for exploiting the asiento other commercial privileges won from Spain after Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Took over large portion of public debt by receiving gov’t bonds in return for shares of its stock. Stock values soared but the “bubble” burst in 1720 England recovered better than France who had created a Mississippi Bubble for New Orleans commerce. “Bubble Act”: forbade joint-stock companies, except those chartered by gov’t
3 Anglo-Dutch wars ( ) hurt Dutch shipping and commerce Netherlands’ “golden age”: during 1 st half of 17 th century, now in decline
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France War of Spanish Succession (Queen Anne’s War) ( ) Treaty of Utrecht (1713): Britain received asiento (slave trade) from Spain Britain allowed to send 1 ship of merchandise annually into Panama Britain received control of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739): started over Spanish anger over British abuse of asiento. Expanded into War of Austrian Succession the following year War of Austrian Succession (King George’s War) ( ) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748): restored status quo prior to war
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France Seven Years War (French and Indian War, The Great War for Empire) ( ) Continental War primary between Prussia and Austria. Global war in North America, Caribbean and India. William Pitt the Elder: successfully led war effort from Parliament for UK; British naval superiority won the day. Flag of Maryland Militia under G. Washington, defeated at Ft. Duquesne
Colonial Wars: Britain v. France Robert Clive defeats French backers in India at the Battle of Plassey (June 1557) General Wolfe defeated Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham (Battle of Quebec) in Sept Treaty of Paris (1763): Britain gained all French territory in North America (Canada and the US Midwest) Spain gained New Orleans and Louisiana. Removed French from significant position in India.
British in India Took advantage of the teetering Mughal Empire. The British East India Company grew in power; ruled Bengal. India Act of 1784 placed India under control of British gov’t The British Raj transformed India into the “Jewel of the British Crown” in the 19 th century.
Spanish Colonies Spain’s Latin American colonies: helped revitalize Spanish empire in 18 th c. gold and silver mining recovered significant trade with mother country Creoles elite came to rival top Spanish authorities (about 10% of population) Mestizos increased to about 20% of population black slavery in Cuba and Puerto Rico
Portuguese Colonies Portuguese Brazil: about 50% of population African by early 19 th c. more successful in blending races than in Spanish colonies or United States Slavery remained in place until the end of the 19 th century.