Presentation on theme: "14 The Great Depression Begins The Nation’s Sick Economy"— Presentation transcript:
114 The Great Depression Begins The Nation’s Sick Economy QUIT14C H A P T E RThe Great Depression BeginsCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1The Nation’s Sick EconomyGRAPHSECTION2Hardship and Suffering During the DepressionMAPSECTION3Hoover Struggles with the DepressionVISUAL SUMMARY
214 The Great Depression Begins HOME14C H A P T E RThe Great Depression BeginsCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the causes and consequences of the Great Depression and the futility of Hoover’s actions to limit the damage
314 The Great Depression Begins I N T E R A C T HOME14C H A P T E RThe Great Depression BeginsI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YThe year is The United States economy has collapsed. Farms, businesses, and banks nationwide are failing, causing massive unemployment and poverty. You are out of work with little prospect of finding a job.What would you do to feed your family?Examine the Issues• What groups of people will be most hurt by the economic crash?• What can you do to find a paying job?• What can unemployed and impoverished people do to help each other?
414 The Great Depression Begins The United States The World HOME C H A P T E RThe Great Depression BeginsTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1929 The first Academy Awards are presented. The stock market crashes.1930 Army officers led by José Uriburu seize control of the government of Argentina.More than 40% of the nation’s banks fail.1931 Japan invades Manchuria.1931 Jane Addams shares the Nobel Peace Prize million Americans are unemployed.1932 The Bonus Army arrives in Washington, D.C. Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president.1932 Ibn Sa’ud becomes king of newly-united Saudi Arabia. From prison, Mohandas K. Gandhi leads a protest against British policies in India.1933 “Century of Progress Exposition” begins. The Twenty-first Amendment ends Prohibition. More than 13 million Americans are unemployed.1933 Adolf Hitler takes power in Germany. Japan withdraws from the League of Nations.
5The Nation’s Sick Economy S E C T I O N1The Nation’s Sick EconomyGRAPHHOMEKEY IDEAEconomic problems affecting industries, farmers, and consumers lead to the Great Depression.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
6The Nation’s Sick Economy S E C T I O N1The Nation’s Sick EconomyGRAPHHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAs the prosperity of the 1920s ended, severe economic problems gripped the nation.The Great Depression has had lasting effects on how Americans view themselves and their government.TERMS & NAMES• Alfred E. Smith• Great Depression• Black Tuesday• buying on margin• Dow Jones Industrial Average• Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act• credit• speculation• price supportASSESSMENT
7The Nation’s Sick Economy S E C T I O N1The Nation’s Sick EconomyGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT1. List the causes and effects of the 1929 stock market crash.CauseEffectBuying on marginLoss of confidenceFalling stock pricesSpeculationStock Market CrashHigh unemploymentLoss of savingsBank failuresBankrupt businessescontinued . . .
8The Nation’s Sick Economy S E C T I O N1The Nation’s Sick EconomyGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT2. How did the economic trends of the 1920s help cause the Great Depression? Think About:• what happened in industry• what happened in agriculture• what happened with consumersANSWERIndustries: Less peacetime demand for goodsAgriculture: International demand for crops fell, farmers went bankrupt, and rural banks failed.Consumers: Credit debt proved disastrous when the banks failed.continued . . .
9The Nation’s Sick Economy S E C T I O N1The Nation’s Sick EconomyGRAPHHOMEASSESSMENT3. Judging from the events of the late 1920s and early 1930s, how important do you think public confidence is to the health of the economy? Think About:• what happened when overconfidence in the stock market led people to speculate and buy on margin• how confidence affects consumer borrowingANSWERToo much confidence can lead to making unwise decisions, such as taking on too much debt. Too little can lead to money being pulled out of the stock market and banks—triggering a panic.End of Section 1
10Hardship and Suffering During the Depression S E C T I O N2Hardship and Suffering During the DepressionHOMEKEY IDEAThe Great Depression brings suffering of many kinds and degrees to people from all walks of life.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
11Hardship and Suffering During the Depression S E C T I O N2HOMEHardship and Suffering During the DepressionOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDuring the Great Depression, Americans did what they had to do to survive.Since the Great Depression, many Americans have been more cautious about saving, investing, and borrowing.TERMS & NAMES• shantytown• direct relief• soup kitchen• Dust Bowl• bread lineASSESSMENT
12Hardship and Suffering During the Depression S E C T I O N2HOMEHardship and Suffering During the DepressionASSESSMENT1. List the effects that the Great Depression had on farmers and city dwellers. Identify the differences and the similarities.FarmersBothCity DwellersLost land, grew their own food, turned to tenant farmingLost their jobs and homesLost jobs, ended up in the streets, built shantytowns, took food from soup kitchenscontinued . . .
13Hardship and Suffering During the Depression HOME2S E C T I O NHardship and Suffering During the DepressionASSESSMENT2. How was what happened to men during the Great Depression different from what happened to women? children? Think About:• each group’s role in their families• the changes each group had to make• what help was available to themANSWERMen: depressed over changes in their status and inability to provide for their families; wandered the country looking for workWomen: forced to take a more active role in the survival of their families by working outside the homeChildren: stopped going to school, went to work; suffered from malnutrition and diet-related diseasescontinued . . .
14Hardship and Suffering During the Depression S E C T I O N2HOMEHardship and Suffering During the DepressionASSESSMENT3. How did Dust Bowl conditions in the Great Plains affect the entire country?ANSWEREastern cities were covered with dirt blown from the plains. Hundreds of thousands of farm families migrated to California, where unemployment soared.continued . . .
15Hardship and Suffering During the Depression S E C T I O N2HOMEHardship and Suffering During the DepressionASSESSMENT4. In what ways did the Great Depression affect people’s outlook?ANSWERThe economic problems forced people to make compromises and sacrifices in their goal to be financially secure.End of Section 2
16Hoover Struggles with the Depression S E C T I O N3MAPHOMEHoover Struggles with the DepressionKEY IDEAPresident Hoover tries to restore confidence and halt the Depression, but his actions are ineffective.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
17Hoover Struggles with the Depression S E C T I O N3MAPHOMEHoover Struggles with the DepressionOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWPresident Hoover’s conservative response to the Great Depression drew criticism from many Americans.Worsening conditions in the country caused the government to become more involved in the health and wealth of the people.TERMS & NAMES• Herbert Hoover• Federal Home Loan Bank Act• Reconstruction Finance Corporation• Bonus Army• Boulder DamASSESSMENT
18Hoover Struggles with the Depression S E C T I O N3Hoover Struggles with the DepressionMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. Explain what Hoover said and did in response to the Great Depression.“Any lack of confidence in the economic future…is foolish”Sending of troops against Bonus ArmyReconstruction Finance Corporation“rugged individualism”Federal Home Loan Bank ActHoover’s ResponsesBoulder DamPublic-works programsFederal Farm Boardcontinued . . .
19Hoover Struggles with the Depression S E C T I O N3MAPHOMEHoover Struggles with the DepressionASSESSMENT2. How did Hoover’s belief in “rugged individualism” shape his policies during the Great Depression? Think About:• what his belief implies about his view of people• how that translates into the role of government• Hoover’s policiesANSWERHoover’s belief in “rugged individualism” implied limited government intervention and prompted him to take a cautious approach.continued . .
20Hoover Struggles with the Depression S E C T I O N3Hoover Struggles with the DepressionMAPHOMEASSESSMENT3. When Franklin Delano Roosevelt heard about the attack on the Bonus Army, why was he so certain that he would defeat Hoover? Think About:• the American public’s impression of Hoover• Hoover’s actions to alleviate the Great Depression• how people judged Hoover after the attackANSWERThe public wanted a leader who would act to relieve its suffering. The attack made Hoover seem uncaring and cruel. Also, the public already blamed Hoover for its suffering, and the attack just confirmed that negative impression of him.End of Section 3