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Inquiry Lesson – 1928 to 1932: Trials and Tribulations during Hoover’s Administration Major Events to consider during Hoover’s Administration Jim Crow.

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Presentation on theme: "Inquiry Lesson – 1928 to 1932: Trials and Tribulations during Hoover’s Administration Major Events to consider during Hoover’s Administration Jim Crow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inquiry Lesson – 1928 to 1932: Trials and Tribulations during Hoover’s Administration Major Events to consider during Hoover’s Administration Jim Crow Atrocities Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters The Response of Hoover’s Administration The Great Crash The Bonus Army

2 Here is how the lesson will work... 1.Remember, often it is not the answer that matters, but the questions that precede any answer. 2.Each color coded historical grouping (red, grey, black, green, and orange) will have 3-5 student partners. These student participants will attempt to evaluate a document, video, audio, etc. piece of primary source evidence. 3.To accomplish this primary source evaluation, students will use the Stripling Model of Inquiry (see next slide) 4.Then, each member will respond to guiding questions (see slide after Stripling Model of Inquiry): Major Events to consider during Hoover’s Administration

3 Source: https://washington2011esd112.pbworks.com/w/page/ /Inquiry%20Process%20Model

4 Guiding Questions 1.What is the role of government, the individual, and the community in times of hardship? Where do they crossover, or do they? 2.Since this is an inquiry based exercise, what are your questions related to your piece of evidence. Generate one for each level. The time allotment for this 55 minute class period will be: 5 minute set up, 20 minute interpretation/reflection, (see Library of Congress interpretation/reflection guide – next slide) 25 minute share, 5 min wrap-up Major Events to consider during Hoover’s Administration

5 Primary Source Analysis Tool Guiding Question - What is the role of government, the individual, and the community in times of hardship? Where do they crossover, or do they? What inferences and/or observations can you make about this source? How do your observations and inferences connect with the guiding question? What questions do you still have?

6 Guiding Question - What is the role of government, the individual, and the community in times of hardship? Where do they crossover, or do they? Fill in connections to be made by the three entities. Government Community Individual

7 – Evidence piece #1 Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

8 Evidence piece #1 Source Info Left SideRight Side Title: Farmer and sons walking in the face of a dust storm. Cimarron County, Oklahoma Creator(s): Rothstein, Arthur, , photographer Date Created/Published: 1936 Apr. Summary: Photo shows the Dust Bowl area. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsc (digital file from print) LC-USZ (b&w film copy neg. from print) LC- USZC (color film copy transparency from print) Photographs (http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/071_fsab.h tml) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC USA Title: Son of farmer in dust bowl area. Cimarron County, Oklahoma Creator(s): Rothstein, Arthur, , photographer Date Created/Published: 1936 Apr. Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-fsa-8b38282 (digital file from original neg.) LC-USZ (b&w film copy neg. from file print) (http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/071_fsab. html) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

9 – Evidence piece #2 Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

10 Evidence piece #2 Source Info Left SideRight Side Title: Migrant agricultural worker's family. Seven hungry children. Mother aged thirty- two. Father is native Californian. Nipomo, California Creator(s): Dorothea Lange Date Created/Published: 1936 Feb. or Mar. Digital ID: (b&w copy scan) fsa 8b Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC USA Title: Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. Age thirty-two. Nipomo, California Creator(s): Dorothea Lange Date Created/Published: 1936 Feb. or Mar. Digital ID: (digital file from original neg.) fsa 8b Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

11 – Evidence piece #3 Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

12 Evidence piece #3 Source Info Left SideRight Side Title: More Oklahomans reach Calif. via the cotton fields of Ariz. ; "We got blowed out in Oklahoma." Share-croppers family near Bakersfield, Apr. 7, 1935 Creator(s): Lange, Dorothea, photographer Date Created/Published: Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C USA Title: Kansas "dust bowl" farmer Creator(s): Rothstein, Arthur, , photographer Date Created/Published: 1936 Mar. Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

13 Evidence Piece #4 Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

14 – Evidence piece #4 Source Info Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters Title: A Shower At Last Creator(s): Joe Parrish, cartoonist Newspaper: The Nashville Tennessean Date Created/Published: July 10, 1936 Repository: International Team of Comic Historians (I.T.C.H.)

15 Evidence Piece #5 Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters Dust Bowl Interview – 4:31 durationDust Bowl Film Clip -

16 Evidence piece #5 Source Info Dust Bowl Interview – 4:31 durationOkie Audio clip #2 - Interviewee – Mrs. Flora Robertson Album – Voices from the Dust Bowl Interviewee – Album – Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

17 – Evidence piece #6 Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

18 Evidence Piece #6 Source Info Title: Typescript for The Grapes of Wrath with copy-editing marks, Author/Creator(s): John Steinbeck ( ) Date Created/Published: 1939 Repository: Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, DC Farmers, the Dust Bowl, and the Exodusters

19 Evidence piece #1 Jim Crow Atrocities

20 Evidence piece #1 Source Info Jim Crow Atrocities Newspaper Article: The Act of Lynching Author: No author cited Publication: Cleveland Gazette 17, no. 10 (10/07/1899) Source - Library of Congress

21 Jim Crow Atrocities Evidence piece #2

22 Evidence piece #2 Source Info Jim Crow Atrocities Title: The lynching of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith Creator(s): Lawrence Beitler Date Created/Published: August 7, 1930 Repository: Library of Congress, Washington, DC lcweb2.loc.gov/ and Images and the Media, Andover University sAndTheMediaPortfolioGuide.pdf

23 Jim Crow Atrocities Evidence piece #3 Strange Fruit (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4ZyuULy9zs)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h4ZyuULy9zs Southern trees bear strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, Black bodies swinging in the Southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. Pastoral scene of the gallant South, The bulging eyes and twisted mouth, The scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh, Then the sudden smell of burning flesh. Here is a fruit for the crows to pluck, For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop.

24 Evidence piece #3 Source Info Left SideRight Side Title: Strange Fruit Creator(s): Abel Meeropol (aka Lewis Allen) Date Created/Published: Originally published: The New York Teacher, (a union magazine) Repository: Library of Congress Motion Picture and Television Reading Room Division Washington, DC -c.html Title: Strange Fruit Creator(s)/Performer: Abel Meeropol (aka Lewis Allen) writer; Billy Holiday (performed) Date Created/Performed: 1936/1939 respectively Repository: h?v=h4ZyuULy9zs Jim Crow Atrocities

25 Evidence piece #4 Jim Crow Atrocities

26 Evidence piece #4 Source Info Jim Crow Atrocities Left SideRight Side Title: A Terrible Blot on American Civilization Author/Creator(s): District Colombia Anti-Lynching Committee North Eastern Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs Created/Published: 1922 Repository: Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, DC 0/rbpe208/ /001dr.jpg Title: Lynchings for 1922 Author/Creator(s): R.R. Moton Created/Published: 01/13/1923 Repository: Ohio Historical Center Archives Library age1.cfm?ItemID=1782

27 Evidence piece #5 Jim Crow Atrocities

28 Evidence piece #5 Source Info Jim Crow Atrocities Data Table: Source: From Stewart E. Tolnay and E.M. Beck, A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings,

29 Evidence piece #6 Source Info Jim Crow Atrocities

30 Evidence piece #5 Source Info Jim Crow Atrocities Signage from Jim Crow South Source:

31 – Evidence piece #7 Jim Crow Atrocities {begin page 1} In dealing with all vexed questions, the chief aim of every honest inquirer should be to ascertain the facts. No good purpose is subserved either by concealment on the one hand or exaggeration on the other. "The truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth," is the only sure foundation for just judgment. The purpose of this pamphlet is to give the public the facts, in the belief that there is still a sense of justice in the American people, and that it will yet assert itself in condemnation of outlawry and in defense of oppressed and persecuted humanity. In this firm belief the following pages will describe the lynching of nine colored men, who were arrested near Palmetto, Georgia, about the middle of March, upon suspicion that they were implicated in the burning of the three houses in February preceding. The nine suspects were not criminals, they were hard-working, law-abiding citizens, men of families. They had assaulted no woman, and, after the lapse of nearly a month, it could not be claimed that the fury of an insane mob made their butchery excusable. They were in the custody of law, unarmed, chained together and helpless, awaiting their trial. They had no money to employ learned counsel to invoke the aid of technicalities to defeat justice. They were in custody of a white Sheriff, to be prosecuted by a white State's Attorney, to be tried before a white judge, and by a white jury. Surely the guilty had no chance to escape. Still they were lynched. That the awful story of their slaughter may not be considered overdrawn, the following description is taken from the columns of the Atlanta Journal, as it was written by Royal Daniel, a staff correspondent. The story of the lynching thus told is as follows: Palmetto. Ga., March 16.--A mob of more than 100 desperate men, armed with Winchesters and shotguns and pistols and wearing masks, rode into Palmetto at 1 o'clock this morning and shot to death four Negro prisoners, desperately wounded another and with deliberate aim fired at four others, wounding two, believing the entire nine had been killed.

32 – Evidence piece #7 (page 2) Jim Crow Atrocities {Begin page no. 2} The boldness of the mob and the desperateness with which the murder was contemplated and executed, has torn the little town with excitement and anxiety. All business has been suspended, and the town is under military patrol, and every male inhabitant is armed to the teeth, in anticipation of an outbreak which is expected to-night. Last night nine Negroes were arrested and placed in the warehouse near the depot. The Negroes were charged with the burning of the two business blocks here in February. At 1 o'clock this morning the mob dashed into town while the people slept. They rushed to the warehouse in which the nine Negroes were guarded by six white men. The door was burst open and the guards were ordered to hold up their hands. Then the mob fired two volleys into the line of trembling, wretched and pleading prisoners, and to make sure of their work, placed pistols in the dying men's faces and emptied the chambers. Citizens who were aroused by the shooting and ran out to investigate the cause were driven to their homes at the point of guns and pistols and then the mob mounted their horses and dashed out of town, back into the woods and home again. None of the mob was recognized, as their faces were completely concealed by masks. The men did their work orderly and coolly and exhibited a determination seldom equaled under similar circumstances. The nine Negroes were tied with ropes and were helpless. The guard was held at the muzzle of guns and threatened with death if a man moved. Then the firing was deliberately done, volley by volley. The Negroes now dead are: Tip Hudson, Bud Cotton, Ed Wynn, Henry Bingham. Fatally shot and now dying: John Bigby. Shot but will recover: John Jameson. Arm broken: George Tatum. Escaped without injury: Ison Brown, Clem Watts. The men who were guarding the Negroes are well know and prominent citizens of Palmetto, and were sworn in only yesterday as a special guard for the night. The commitment trial of the Negroes was set for 9 o'clock this morning. Bud Cotton, who was killed, had confessed to the burning of the stores in Palmetto, and had implicated all the others who had been arrested

33 Evidence piece #5 Source Info Jim Crow Atrocities Author/Creator: Ida B. Wells-Barnett Source: perspectives/thinking.html

34 Evidence piece #1 The Bonus Army

35 Evidence piece #1 – Source Data. The Bonus Army Title: Forgotten Men Creator(s): Carey Orr Date Created/Published: Chicago Tribune, July 1932 Repository: San Francisco State University

36 Evidence piece #2 The Bonus Army

37 Evidence piece #2 – Source Data. The Bonus Army Left SideRight Side Title: Veterans Bonus March, Washington D.C. Creator(s): Theodor Horydczak (ca ) Date Created/Published: July 1932 Repository: Library of Congress Title: Veterans Bonus March, Washington D.C. Creator(s): Theodor Horydczak (ca ) Date Created/Published: July 1932 Repository: Library of Congress

38 Evidence piece #3 The Bonus Army

39 Evidence piece #3 – Source Data. The Bonus Army Title: Bonus Army on Capitol lawn, Washington, D.C. Creator(s): Unknown Date Created/Published: July 13, 1932 Repository: Library of Congress

40 Evidence piece #4 The Bonus Army Bonus Marchers

41 Evidence piece #4 – Source Data Title: What, more boarders? Creator(s): Carmack, Paul R., , artist Date Created/Published: Original Publication: Christian Science Monitor Source: Library of Congress tml The Bonus Army

42 Evidence piece #5 The Bonus Army

43 Evidence piece #5 – Source Data Newspaper Article: Rank and File (US military publication) Date: December 5 th, 1932 Source: tml The Bonus Army

44 – Evidence piece #6 The Bonus Army People keep advocating rebellion, but we are curious to know what they want to rebel against. The bonus marchers, if combined with the Kentucky miners would probably spend their time arguing about which grievance to support instead of doing anything. Unemployment has become a business... In a democracy, there are a thousand, ten thousand groups…. Each has its own particular sorrow and its grievance; there exists no common tyranny against which to rebel, not even the tyranny of hard times. If you mixed bonus marchers with Kentucky miners, they would probably spend the rest of their lives arguing about what to rebel against... Being out of a job perforates the walls of the mind, and thoughts seep off into strange channels. To say that the country is as rich as it ever was is a joke: something is gone that used to be here—the spirit of millions of men is gone, and a man’s spirit is just as real a natural resource as gold or wheat or lumber.

45 Evidence piece #6 – Source Data Author: E.B. White Date: June 25, 1932 Magazine Article: The New Yorker Magazine Source:http://www.newyorker.com/search/query? keyword=Bonus%20army The Bonus Army

46 Evidence piece #7 The Bonus Army HOOVER DEFENSE IN CALLING OUT TROOPS The text of President Hoover's statement late yesterday in defense of his action in calling out troops to evacuate the bonus veterans, follows: "A challenge to the authority of the United States Government has been met, swiftly and firmly. "After months of patient indulgence, the Government met overt lawlessness as it always must be met if the cherished processes of self-government are to be preserved. We cannot tolerate the abuse of constitutional rights by those who would destroy all government, no matter who they may be. Government cannot be coerced by mob rule. "The Department of Justice is pressing its investigation into the violence which forced the call for Army detachments and it is my sincere hope that those agitators who inspired yesterday's attack upon the Federal authority may be brought speedily to trial in the civil courts. There can be no safe harbor in the United States of America for violence. "Order and civil tranquility are the first requisites in the great task of economic reconstruction to which our whole people now are devoting their heroic and noble energies. This national effort must not be retarded in even the slightest degree by organized lawlessness. "The first obligation of my office is to uphold and defend the Constitution and the authority of the law. This I propose always to do."

47 Evidence piece #7 – Source Data Newspaper Article: President Hoover comments on use of federal troops Date Created/Published: Washington Herald, July 30, 1932 Source: ine/hoover_and_the_depression/bonus_march/ group_index.cfm?GroupID=14 The Bonus Army

48 Evidence piece #8 The Bonus Army

49 Evidence piece #8 – Source Data Photograph: Bonus Marchers clash with D.C. police Source: rs_05510_2004_001_a.gif The Bonus Army

50 – Evidence piece #9 The Bonus Army

51 Evidence piece #9 – Source Data. The Bonus Army Left SideRight Side Title: Bonus Army shanty in flames, Washington D.C. Creator(s): Associated Press photo Date Created/Published: July 13, 1932 Repository: Library of Congress thur/peopleevents/images/pandeAMEX 89.jpg Title: Fire set by U.S. Army, consuming camp of Bonus Expeditionary Forces; Washington Monument in background. Creator(s): Associated Press photo Date Created/Published: July 1932 Repository: KM Historic Photographs Expeditionary-Forces-Washington- Monument/dp/B004J6405M

52 Evidence piece #10 The Bonus Army

53 Evidence piece #10 – Source Data Newsreel Footage : US Army rousting Bonus Army from Encampments Source – Universal Newspaper Newsreel els The Bonus Army

54 – Evidence piece #1 The Great Crash

55 Evidence piece #1 – Source Data Data Table: Source: AGRICULTURAL PRICES UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE YEARBOOK OF AGRICULTURE, 1934 The Great Crash

56 Evidence piece #2 The Great Crash

57 Evidence piece #2 – Source Data Title: STOCKS COLLAPSE IN 16,410,030-SHARE DAY, BUT RALLY AT CLOSE CHEERS BROKERS; BANKERS OPTIMISTIC, TO CONTINUE AID Date Published: New York Times, October 29, 1929 Source: onthisday_big.html#article The Great Crash

58 – Evidence piece #3 The Great Crash

59 Evidence piece #3 – Source Data. Left SideRight Side Title: Prosperity: Fact or Myth Author/Creator(s): Stuart Chase Date Created/Published: C. Boni., 1929 Repository: Library of Congress, mlmss/eadpdfmss/2008/ms pdf Title: Comparative Operating Experience of Consumer Installment Financing Agencies and Commercial Banks, Author/Creator(s)/Editor: Ernst A. Dauer Date Created/Published: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1944 Repository: National Bureau of Economic Research The Great Crash

60 Evidence piece #4 The Great Crash

61 Evidence piece #4 – Source Data Title: Great Crash film clip Author/Creator(s): Unknown Date Created/Published: 1929 Repository: Library of Congress The Great Crash

62 Evidence piece #5 The Great Crash Once I built a tower, to the sun Brick and rivet and lime, Once I built a tower, Now its done Brother, can you spare a dime? Once in khaki suites Gee, we looked swell Full of that Yankee Doodle-de-dum. Half a million boots went sloggin' thru Hell, I was the kid with the drum. Say, don't you remember, they called me Al It was Al all the time Say, don't you remember I'm your Pal! Buddy, can you spare a dime? They used to tell me I was building a dream, And so I followed the mob When there as earth to plough or guns to bear I was always there right on the job. The used to tell me I was building a dream With peace and glory ahead Why should I be standing in line just waiting for bread? Once I built a railroad, made it run, Made it race against time. Once I build a railroad, Now its done Brother, can you spare a dime?

63 Evidence piece #5 – Source Data Title: Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? Author/Creator(s): lyricist E. Y. "Yip" Harburg, composer Jay Gorner Date Created/Published: 1931 Repository: Library of Congress The Great Crash

64 Evidence piece #6 The Great Crash

65 Evidence piece #6 – Source Data Title: Hoover Election Campaign Poster Author/Creator(s): Unknown Date Created/Published: 1928 Repository: Library of Congress The Great Crash

66 Evidence piece #7 The Great Crash

67 Evidence piece #7 – Source Data. Left SideRight Side Title: While such things are possible Publication: Des Moines Register Creator(s): : Jay “Ding” Darling Date Created/Published: November 10, 1928, Repository: National Archives blackboard/2010/04/13/political- cartoons/ Title: An Awful Big Contract Publication: Des Moines Register Creator(s): : Jay “Ding” Darling Date Created/Published: March 4, 1929 (Hoover’s Inauguration Day) Repository: National Archives blackboard/2010/04/13/political-cartoons/ The Great Crash

68 – Evidence piece #1 The Response of Hoover’s Administration

69 Evidence piece #1 Source Data The Response of Hoover’s Administration Title: “Sorry, I can’t shake hands right now” Publication: Des Moines Register Creator(s): Unknown Date Created/Published: October 1931 Repository: Library of Congress

70 – Evidence piece #2 The Response of Hoover’s Administration “OUR GOVERNMENT IS FOUNDED ON A CONCEPTION THAT IN TIMES OF GREAT EMERGENCY, WHEN FORCES ARE RUNNING BEYOND THE CONTROL OF INDIVIDUALS OR COOPERATIVE ACTION, BEYOND THE CONTROL OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES OR THE STATES, THEN THE GREAT RESERVE POWERS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE BROUGHT INTO ACTION TO PROTECT THE PEOPLE. BUT WHEN THESE FORCES HAVE CEASED THERE MUST BE A RETURN TO STATE, LOCAL AND INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY.”

71 Evidence piece #2 Source Data The Response of Hoover’s Administration Title: Hoover Speech on his philosophy of government Publication: New York Times Creator(s): : Herbert Hoover Date Created/Published: October 1932 Repository: National Archives

72 72 The Response of Hoover’s Administration – Evidence piece #3

73 Evidence piece #3 – Source Data. Title: Priming the Old Pump Publication: New York Tribune Creator(s): : Jay “Ding” Darling Date Created/Published: April 8, 1930 Repository: National Archives blackboard/2010/04/13/political- cartoons/ Title: The New Anti-Toxin Publication: New York Tribune Creator(s): : Jay “Ding” Darling Date Created/Published: January 20, 1932 Repository: National Archives blackboard/2010/04/13/political-cartoons/ The Response of Hoover’s Administration Left SideRight Side

74 – Evidence piece #4 The Response of Hoover’s Administration

75 Evidence piece #5 and Sources “OUR GOVERNMENT IS FOUNDED ON A CONCEPTION THAT IN TIMES OF GREAT Response of Hoover’s Administration "We in America today are nearer to the final triumph over poverty than ever before in the history of any land. The poorhouse is vanishing from among us.“ (Presidential Candidate Herbert Hoover, 1928) – Source: National Archives "I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering.... The lesson should be constantly enforced that though the people support the Government the Government should not support the people." ( President Herbert Hoover, 1930) Source: National Archives EMERGENCY, WHEN FORCES ARE RUNNING BEYOND THE CONTROL OF INDIVIDUALS OR COOPERATIVE ACTION, BEYOND THE CONTROL OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES OR THE STATES, THEN THE GREAT RESERVE POWERS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE BROUGHT INTO ACTION TO PROTECT THE PEOPLE. BUT WHEN THESE FORCES HAVE CEASED THERE MUST BE A RETURN TO STATE, LOCAL AND INDIVIDUAL RESPONSIBILITY.” - PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER, OCTOBER 1932 Source: National Archives

76 Evidence piece #6 The Response of Hoover’s Administration

77 Evidence piece #6 The Response of Hoover’s Administration Title: Awful Job Creator(s): Date Created/Published: 1932 Repository: Library of Congress

78 Evidence piece #7 – Source Data Library of Congress The Response of Hoover’s Administration Hoover Campaign Speech 1932FDR Campaign Speech 1932

79 Evidence piece #8 The Response of Hoover’s Administration

80 Evidence piece #8 – Source Data. Title: Going Home to Palo Alto, California Publication: Des Moines Register Creator(s): : Jay “Ding” Darling Date Created/Published: March 10, 1933, Repository: National Archives ivate.htm The Response of Hoover’s Administration

81 Guiding Question - What is the role of government, the individual, and the community in times of hardship? Where do they crossover, or do they? Fill in connections to be made by the three entities. Government Community Individual

82 Primary Source Analysis Tool Guiding Question - What is the role of government, the individual, and the community in times of hardship? Where do they crossover, or do they? Who makes a difference? What should be the limits? What inferences and/or observations can you make about this source? How do your observations and inferences connect with the guiding question? What questions do you still have? Can you frame your previous questions in an AP three level structure?

83 Consider this guiding question across time and space. What other eras and/or events fit this question? Today?


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