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Pertemuan 6 Membeli aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Matakuliah: H0402/PENGELOLAAN SISTEM KOMPUTER Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1/0.

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Presentation on theme: "Pertemuan 6 Membeli aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Matakuliah: H0402/PENGELOLAAN SISTEM KOMPUTER Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1/0."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pertemuan 6 Membeli aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Matakuliah: H0402/PENGELOLAAN SISTEM KOMPUTER Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1/0

2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Menunjukkan cara-cara dalam membeli teknologi informasi pada dunia nyata

3 Outline Materi Keputusan membeli atau buat Metoda membeli Keputusan memberikan user tools untuk membuat aplikasi sendiri

4 SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) PROTOTYPING PURCHASED SOFTWARE OUTSOURCING (SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR) END USER DEVELOPMENT *

5 MAKE-OR -BUY DECISION ASSESS RISKS & BENEFITS MAKE: Use SDLC, prototyping, RAD if organization has IS skills. Can save cost, speed implementation BUY: If vendor offers acceptable product and required support at lower cost, faster time than in-house development could provide. Usually system must be modified to meet organization’s needs *

6 THE PURCHASING PROCESS DEFINITION PHASE: FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION SHORT LIST OF PACKAGES ESTABLISH EVALUATION CRITERIA DEVELOP AND DISTRIBUTE RFP CHOOSE PACKAGE NEGOTIATE CONTRACT *

7 THE PURCHASING PROCESS CONSTRUCTION PHASE: SYSTEM DESIGN: Package modification SYSTEM BUILDING: Package modification SYSTEM TESTING IMPLEMENTATION PHASE: INSTALLATION OPERATIONS MAINTENANCE *

8 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP) DOCUMENT SENT TO POTENTIAL VENDORS INVITING THEM TO SUBMIT A PROPOSAL TO FURNISH A SYSTEM PROVIDES DETAILED INFORMATION ABOUT THE DESIRED SYSTEM, ITS ENVIRONMENT, MATERIAL REQUIRED FROM VENDOR, AND GENERAL CRITERIA USED TO EVALUATE PROPOSALS *

9 SAMPLE CONTENTS OF RFP 1. INTRODUCTION: A. STRUCTURE & SCOPE B.OBJECTIVE C.COMPANY BACKGROUND, PHILOSOPHY D.HARDWARE/SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT E.CURRENT BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT *

10 SAMPLE CONTENTS OF RFP II. GUIDELINES FOR RESPONSE: A.GUIDELINES B.VENDOR’S RESPONSE C.GENERAL EVALUATION PROCESS D.HARDWARE/SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT E.CURRENT BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT *

11 SAMPLE CONTENTS OF RFP III. REQUIREMENTS: A.VENDOR INFORMATION B. VENDOR SUPPORT/TRAINING C.DOCUMENTATION D.PACKAGE HARDWARE & SYSTEM SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT E.APPLICATION & DATABASE ARCHITECTURE F.TUNING & MEASUREMENT G.FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS *

12 SAMPLE CONTENTS OF RFP IV. COSTS: A.SUMMARY B.NON-RECURRING C.RECURRING D.PRICE GUARANTEE E.MAINTENANCE AGREEMENT F.NEW RELEASES V. SIGNATURE PAGE *

13 MATCHING COMPANY NEEDS WITH PACKAGE CAPABILITIES PACKAGE CAPABILITIES COMPANY NEEDS IDENTIFY DISCREPANCIES CHOOSE ALTERNATIVES MODIFY PACKAGE CHANGE COMPANY LIVE WITH PROBLEMS

14 ROLES FOR PURCHASING PACKAGED APPLICATIONS PROJECT MANAGER: Manages process, responsible for the success of the project, may be user but IS expertise required VENDOR: Must be responsive to customer’s needs PURCHASING SPECIALIST: Helps prepare RFP, assist in entire process ATTORNEYS: Oversee writing, approval of contract *

15 PURCHASING SOFTWARE ADVANTAGES: REDUCED TIME TO IMPLEMENT LOWER OVERALL ACQUISITION COSTS APPLICATION QUALITY REDUCED NEED FOR INTERNAL IS RESOURCES INFUSION OF EXTERNAL EXPERTISE *

16 PURCHASING SOFTWARE DISADVANTAGES: RISKS DUE TO LACK OF PACKAGE KNOWLEDGE RISKS DUE TO EXTENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES REQUIRED INITIAL & ONGOING DEPENDENCE ON VENDOR *

17 SPECIAL CASE: ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING (ERP) INTERFACES CROSS SEPARATE FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS MUST SUPPORT CROSS-FUNCTIONAL BUSINESS PROCESSES COMPLEX SYSTEMS TAKE YEARS TO COMPLETE REQUIRES EXTENSIVE TRAINING HEAVY RELIANCE ON CONSULTANTS *

18 END-USER COMPUTING HANDS-ON USE OF COMPUTERS BY EMPLOYEES ENTER DATA MAKE INQUIRIES PREPARE REPORTS PERFORM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ANALYZE PROBLEMS DEVELOP WEB PAGES *

19 PRIMARY DRIVERS AVAILABILITY OF LOW-COST MICROCOMPUTERS: –HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES –COMPUTER LITERACY AMONG COLLEGE GRADUATES, PROFESSIONALS INCREASED USER FRUSTRATIONS ABOUT NEW PROJECT BACKLOGS *

20 USER APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT USE OF COMPUTER TOOLS DEVELOP BUSINESS APPLICATIONS USERS ARE NOT IS SPECIALISTS INVOLVES APPLICATION, TOOL & DEVELOPER *

21 USER-DEVELOPED APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES INCREASED USER CONTROL OVER PROJECT INCREASED USER ACCEPTANCE OF SOLUTION FREES IS RESOURCES INCREASES USERS’ KNOWLEDGE OF IT *

22 USER-DEVELOPED APPLICATIONS DISADVANTAGES LOSS OF QUALITY CONTROL INCREASES OPERATIONAL RISKS DUE TO DEVELOPED TURNOVER POTENTIAL LABOR/TIME INEFFICIENCIES LOSS OF INTEGRATION OPPORTUNITIES/CAPABILITIES *

23 CHARACTERISTICS APPLICATION: –SCOPE: Personal, departmental, organizational –CRITICALITY/IMPACT: Risk exposure –SIZE & USAGE: One-time, periodic, ongoing –PROBLEM COMPLEXITY: Structure, how common is task? *

24 CHARACTERISTICS TOOL: –SOPHISTICATION, COMPLEXITY –INTERCONNECTEDNESS DEVELOPER: –USER SKILLS, EXPERIENCE, AVAILABILITY –IS SPECIALIST SKILLS, EXPERIENCE, AVAILABILITY *

25 EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS* STAGE EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS ISOLATION: Application does not use or create data for another application STAND-ALONE: Application uses manually entered computer-generated data from reports, printouts MANUAL INTEGRATION: Data electronically transferred from another application, manually (e.g., file on disk) * * Adapted from Huff, Munro & Martin, 1988

26 EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS* STAGE EXTENT OF INTERCONNECTEDNESS AUTOMATED INTEGRATION: Application electronically connected with one or more databases/applications using automated scripts DISTRIBUTED INTEGRATION: Application uses data created, stored, maintained by organization’s systems under control of IS specialists * * Adapted from Huff, Munro & Martin, 1988

27 GUIDELINES FOR CHOOSING DEVELOPMENT PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR OTHER USERS DEVELOPED FOR SELF USER ONLY SMALL, SIMPLE LARGE, COMPLEX 1. SDLC OR PROTOTYPING, DISCIPLINED APPROACH TO DEFINITION & IMPLEMENTATION 2. SDLC, CLEAR “HANDS-OFF” BETWEEN PHASES 3. “COLLAPSED” LIFE CYCLE 4. DISCIPLINED, ITERATIVE DEVELOPMENT

28 LEVERAGING END-USER COMPUTING* CONTEXT: CONTEXT: ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL FACTORS DEPARTMENTAL LEVEL FACTORS STATUS OF IS/USER PARTNERSHIP ORGANIZATION LEVEL SUPPORT & CONTROL ACTIONS STRATEGY TECHNOLOGY INDIVIDUAL LEVEL DEVELOPMENTPROCESS TASK TOOL USER DEVELOPER *Based on Branceau & Brown, 1993

29 ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL STRATEGY: Strategic objectives and approach to end-user computing TECHNOLOGY: Range & accessibility of end- user tools SUPPORT & CONTROL ACTIONS: Support services, control policies & procedures *

30 EXPANSION/CONTROL MATRIX* HIGH LOW LOWHIGH CONTROL EXPANSION *Based on Monroe et al., ; Brancheau & Amoroso, 1990

31 EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION CENTER STAGE ONE: REACTIVE SERVICES INDIVIDUAL SOLUTIONS PRODUCT TRAINING ALL NEEDS SUPPORTED COMPUTER LITERACY TRAINING ONE-WAY RELATIONSHIPS *

32 EVOLUTION OF INFORMATION CENTER STAGE TWO: PROACTIVE SERVICES DEPARTMENTAL SOLUTIONS BUSINESS PROBLEM-SOLVING HIGH-PAYOFF NEEDS SUPPORTED INFORMATION LITERACY EDUCATION ALLIANCE: IS/USER ALLIANCE *

33 COMMON SUPPORT SERVICES TROUBLESHOOTING CONSULTING TRAINING & IS EDUCATION PRODUCT RESEARCH & EVALUATION INFORMATION SHARING TOOL SELECTION & PURCHASING TOOL INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE & UPGRADING *

34 COMMON POLICIES & PROCEDURES PRODUCT STANDARDS ERGONOMICS PRODUCT PURCHASES INVENTORY CONTROL UPGRADE PROCEDURES QUALITY REVIEW IDENTIFYING CRITICAL APPLICATIONS & DATA *

35 COMMON POLICIES & PROCEDURES DATA ACCESS BACKUP PROCEDURES AUDIT TRAILS DOCUMENTATION STANDARDS UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS UNAUTHORIZED SOFTWARE COPYING VIRUS PROTECTION *

36 Membeli atau membuat Metoda membeli Cara-cara men-develop systems –SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) –PROTOTYPING –PURCHASED SOFTWARE –OUTSOURCING (SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR) –END USER DEVELOPMENT Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi


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