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1 Prof. Erik Bichard Selling Behaviour Change to Senior Management.

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1 1 Prof. Erik Bichard Selling Behaviour Change to Senior Management

2 Policy and Behaviour Change Influencing behaviour is central to any policy Changing minds based on traditional carrot and stick strategies assumes that people make ‘perfectly rational’ decisions, but this is not the case Changing the context within which people make decisions is likely to have more success (conclusions from Dolan et.al., (2010) Mindspace report

3 3 Denial

4 4 Anxiety, Splitting and Psychoanalytical thought Freud’s theory dates back to the 1920’s Apathy, far from laziness, could be a result of caring too much Even worse, consumerism is often the harbour from the storm (after Randell, R (2005) in Psychotherapy and Politics International)

5 5 Confusion

6 ‘Information does not necessarily lead to increased awareness, and increased awareness does not necessarily lead to action [These] must be backed up by other approaches’ From demos/Green Alliance report Carrots, Sticks and Sermons (2003)

7 Common Reasons for Inaction Climate change is not happening It is, but it is overstated We (UK) are only a tiny part of the problem It is important, and something should be done but… The government should fix it Technology will save us The market will rectify the problem Other polluters (China, US etc.) go first Why should I do something if others don’t The problem is too big for me to influence I would act, but don’t like any of the low carbon choices

8 8 Consumer concern mapped against level of consumer action Not strongly concerned about global warming, but willing to take actions where clearly signposted and supported by incentives and social norms Concerned about global warming, willing to take make an effort, empowered to take significant action Do not see global warming as an issue to be personally concerned about, or take any action Concerned about global warming but challenged to see how their action could make a difference Level of Concern Level of Action Taken 10% 9% 6%75% After Accountability/Consumer International Survey 2007

9 What are Attitudes and Behaviours Attitudes are ‘certain regularities of an individual’s feelings, thoughts and predisposition to act towards some aspect of his/her environment’. (Secord and Backman, 1969) Emotions (affective) + Thought (cognitive) + Willingness to act (behaviour) = Attitude Willingness is tempered by a belief that the action will be effective, but also that it will be well received by others (Ajzen and Fishbien (1980)

10 Sustainable Decision-making Is there a problem? Do I care? Do I know what to do about it? Will the Solution Work? What will my peers think of my behaviour? After Ajzen and Fishbien (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action

11 The Fear of Making the Wrong Decision is Very Powerful

12 12 Reacts to Problems by… Searches for… Pioneers Doing something about it themselves Something new and exciting Prospectors Organising with others Something that feels good Settlers Calling for someone to do something Something that is safe After Rose, Dade and Scott (2007) Values-Based Segmentation

13 Triple Track Strategy Intervene with the right information at the optimum point in the decision-making process Use incentives that support the proposition Surround doubters with evidence that others accept the change and would approve of those who join them.

14 14 The Salford University Experience The project: Integrate sustainability into the whole of the curriculum Helped by an 2011 HEA Change Academy place Planned outcome biased towards a middle- out influencing strategy but it didn’t quite work out that way...

15 Sustainable Decision-making: Academic Programme Directors Is there a problem? Do I care? Do I know what to do about it? Will the Solution Work? What will my peers think of my behaviour? After Ajzen and Fishbien (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action

16 Sustainable Decision-making: The Vice Chancellor Is there a problem? Do I care? Do I know what to do about it? Will the Solution Work? What will my peers think of my behaviour? After Ajzen and Fishbien (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action

17 17 Shane O’Donnell Energy Officer Selling behaviour change to "them upstairs" - how to engage with senior management

18 18 The Wakefield College Approach

19 19 The Wakefield College Approach To offer the experience gained at Governor presentation for Wakefield College

20 20 The Wakefield College Approach This all started with a ‘FRIVOLOUS’ comment during an informal conversation about saving energy/money.

21 21 The Wakefield College Approach And then it escalated And the date was set to meet with the Senior Lead Team and Governors!

22 22 The Wakefield College Approach We carried out a SWOT analysis

23 23 The Wakefield College Approach We quickly identified that the main focus for our presentation would be the business case. Business Case Commercial Benefits Social Benefits Moral Benefits Legal Benefits

24 24 The Wakefield College Approach Utilised the acquired data. We carried out in depth research. In order to produce the business case.

25 25 The Wakefield College Approach We grasped any opportunities that arose to enhance our cause. Opportunities such as liaison with : In house staff Suppliers Manufacturers Consultants

26 26 The Wakefield College Approach Obtained Leverage The Objective The Lever Fulcrum Influence Competition Research Allies Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand and I will move the entire earth. Archimedes (C BC) Assistance ??

27 27 The Wakefield College Approach A simple business case consists of: Establishing Context: Put History Together Responding to Opportunity Proposing the Project and Laying out the Investment and Benefits Outlining the Concept of Operations Asking for a Decision and Assigning Responsibility

28 28 The Wakefield College Approach What defines a good business case? A good business case lays out the response to opportunity. Such a response is made contextually relevant with history setting the background. From opportunity, all else flows. Risk adjusted financial measures, the project Concept of Operations, and the strategy response to goals rounds out the completed business case. In short, good business cases define good projects. Good projects return value, provide benefits, and have measurable KPI's.

29 29 The Wakefield College Approach Keep It Simple & Straight forward And remember: Ultimately - If your presenting to them you obviously have a legitimate proposition.

30 30 Message 1 Belief in yourself and the cause Message 2 Build the business case Message 3 ‘Carpe Diem’ and grasp the opportunity.

31 31 A familiar challenge? Desire & Conviction Action Interest & Comprehension Awareness Unaware Embed

32 32 Strategic Selling 1. Identify the buying influences: Economic, Technical, User Buying influences and Coach. These are roles not necessarily individuals. 2. Identify red-flags (missing info or potential weaknesses) 3. Identify positions of strength (aspects that strengthen the likelihood of a sale) 4. Understand the buying influences response mode: Growth, Even Keel, Trouble or Over Confident 5. Understand the competition in a sales situation 6. Identify WIN-RESULTS: these are the combination of a potential personal win for the buyer and a potential positive business result Based on Miller Heiman’s The New Strategic Selling

33 33 SPIN Selling Use a questioning style rather than talking about features of the solution: 1. Situation Do you see energy efficient behaviours on campus? 2. Problem How would this change if staff knew that they would make a difference? 3. Implication Do you think we would achieve better ROIs on capital investments we are making? 4. Need-Payoff If we designed a programme engage staff what reduction could we achieve? Based on Neil Rackham’s SPIN Selling

34 34 Workshop Think of a sales situation you have been in: 1. What do you know about your decision- makers? How will you influence them? 2. What’s the business case? 3. Growth or trouble? What are your positions of strength and potential ‘red flags’? 4. Develop SPIN questions (Situation, Problem, Implication, Need-payoff) 5. What’s your elevator pitch?

35 35 1. Know your decision-makers and play out influencing points against possible outcomes 2. Believe in yourself and the cause 3. Be ready to take opportunities - develop the business case and elevator pitch

36 36 Your next steps – making the most of your EAUC Membership… 1. Resources - visit the dedicated leadership section of the EAUC resource bank 2. Networks - join our Embedding Positive Attitudes and Behaviours Community of Practice - for those wanting to identify with the challenges of changing the behaviour of staff and students Find out more about this group at 5pm today – see programme for details 3. Recognition - want recognition for your behaviour change initiatives – enter the 2012 Green Gown Awards behaviour change category. Entries open in summer Measure and improve - sign up to LiFE at – EAUC Members receive a significant discountwww.thelifeindex.org.uk LiFE offers a dedicated ‘leadership’ framework to help implementation Membership matters at


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