2The Importance of Project Risk Management Project risk management is the art and science of identifying, analyzing, and responding to risk throughout the life of a project and in the best interests of meeting project objectivesRisk management is often overlooked in projects, but it can help improve project success by helping select good projects, determining project scope, and developing realistic estimatesIt helps project stakeholders understand the nature of the project, involves team members in defining strengths and weaknesses and helps to integrate other project management knowledge areas.
3Research Shows Need to Improve Project Risk Management Study by Ibbs and Kwak shows risk has the lowest maturity rating of all knowledge areasA similar survey was completed with software development companies in South Africa in 2003, and risk management also had the lowest maturityKLCI study shows the benefits of good software risk management practices
4Project Management Maturity by Industry Group and Knowledge Area* KEY: 1 = LOWEST MATURITY RATING 5 = HIGHEST MATURITY RATINGKnowledge AreaEngineering/ ConstructionTelecommunicationsInformation SystemsHi-Tech ManufacturingScope3.523.453.253.37Time3.553.413.033.50Cost3.7188.8.131.52Quality2.912.883.26Human Resources3.182.93Communications3.533.213.48Risk2.872.752.76Procurement3.333.013.33 *Ibbs, C. William and Young Hoon Kwak. “Assessing Project Management Maturity,”Project Management Journal (March 2000).
5Benefits from Software Risk Management Practices* *Kulik, Peter and Catherine Weber, “Software Risk Management Practices – 2001,” KLCI Research Group (August 2001).
6Negative RiskA dictionary definition of risk is “the possibility of loss or injury”Negative risk involves understanding potential problems that might occur in the project and how they might impede project successNegative risk management is like a form of insurance; it is an activity undertaken to lessen the impact of potentially adverse events on a project
7Risk Can Be PositivePositive risks are risks that result in good things happening; sometimes called opportunitiesA general definition of project risk is an uncertainty that can have a negative or positive effect on meeting project objectivesThe goal of project risk management is to minimize potential negative risks while maximizing potential positive risks
8Risk UtilityRisk utility or risk tolerance is the amount of satisfaction or pleasure received from a potential payoffUtility rises at a decreasing rate for people who are risk-averse; in other words when more payoff or money is at stake, a person or organization that is risk averse has lower tolerance for riskThose who are risk-seeking have a higher tolerance for risk, and their satisfaction increases when more payoff is at stakeThe risk-neutral approach achieves a balance between risk and payoff
9Risk Utility Function and Risk Preference Y axis represents the utility or the amount of pleasure received from taking the risk
10Project Risk Management Processes Planning risk management: deciding how to approach and plan the risk management activities for the projectIdentifying risks: determining which risks are likely to affect a project and documenting the characteristics of eachPerforming qualitative risk analysis: prioritizing risks based on their probability and impact of occurrence
11Project Risk Management Processes (continued) Performing quantitative risk analysis: numerically estimating the effects of risks on project objectivesPlanning risk responses: taking steps to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to meeting project objectivesMonitoring and controlling risks: monitoring identified and residual risks, identifying new risks, carrying out risk response plans, and evaluating the effectiveness of risk strategies throughout the life of the project
13Risk Management Planning The main output of risk management planning is a risk management plan, a plan that documents the procedures for managing risk throughout a projectThe project team should review project documents and understand the organization’s and the sponsor’s approaches to riskIt is important to review the risk tolerances of various stakeholders. Lets say if the sponsor is risk averse the project team would require an entirely different strategy for risk managementThe level of detail will vary with the needs of the project
14Topics Addressed in a Risk Management Plan MethodologyRoles and responsibilitiesBudget and scheduleRisk categoriesRisk probability and impactRisk documentation
15Contingency and Fallback Plans, Contingency Reserves Contingency plans are predefined actions that the project team will take if an identified risk event occursFallback plans are developed for risks that have a high impact on meeting project objectives and are put into effect if attempts to reduce the risk are not effective.Sometimes the terms contingency plan and fallback plan are used interchangeably.Contingency reserves or allowances are provisions held by the project sponsor or organization to reduce the risk of cost or schedule overruns to an acceptable level
16Common Sources of Risk in Information Technology Projects Several studies show that IT projects share some common sources of riskThe Standish Group developed an IT success potential scoring sheet based on potential risksOther broad categories of risk help identify potential risks
18Broad Categories of Risk Market risk – will users accept and use the product or service?Financial risk – will this project make best use of our finances?Technology risk – is the project technically feasible?People risk – can we find the right people to do the job?Structure/process risk – Does our organization have processes in place to complete this project?
19Risk Breakdown Structure It is common to look into the WBS categories for their potential risksA risk breakdown structure is a hierarchy of potential risk categories for a projectSimilar to a work breakdown structure but used to identify and categorize risks
21Potential Negative Risk Conditions Associated with Each Knowledge Area
22Identifying RisksIdentifying risks is the process of understanding what potential events might hurt or enhance a particular projectRisk identification tools and techniques include:BrainstormingThe Delphi TechniqueInterviewingSWOT analysis
23BrainstormingBrainstorming is a technique by which a group attempts to generate ideas or find a solution for a specific problem by amassing ideas spontaneously and without judgmentAn experienced facilitator should run the brainstorming sessionBe careful not to overuse or misuse brainstormingPsychology literature shows that individuals produce a greater number of ideas working alone than they do through brainstorming in small, face-to-face groupsGroup effects often inhibit idea generation
24Delphi TechniqueThe Delphi Technique is used to derive a consensus among a panel of experts who make predictions about future developmentsProvides independent and anonymous input regarding future eventsUses repeated rounds of questioning and written responses and avoids the biasing effects possible in oral methods, such as brainstorming
25InterviewingInterviewing is a fact-finding technique for collecting information in face-to-face, phone, , or instant- messaging discussionsInterviewing people with similar project experience is an important tool for identifying potential risks
26SWOT AnalysisSWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) can also be used during risk identificationHelps identify the broad negative and positive risks that apply to a project
27Risk RegisterThe main output of the risk identification process is a list of identified risks and other information needed to begin creating a risk registerA risk register is:A document that contains the results of various risk management processes and that is often displayed in a table or spreadsheet formatA tool for documenting potential risk events and related informationRisk events refer to specific, uncertain events that may occur to the detriment or enhancement of the project like delays in completing work as scheduled is a negative risk event and completing the work sooner or cheaper than planned is a positive risk event.
28Risk Register Contents An identification number for each risk event – R44A rank for each risk event - 1The name of each risk event – New customerA description of each risk event – This is a new client and we have never done business with them before.The category under which each risk event falls – People riskThe root cause of each risk – We won a project contract without really getting to know the customer
29Risk Register Contents (continued) Triggers for each risk; triggers are indicators or symptoms of actual risk events – The PM and other senior managers realize that we don’t know this customer well enough and could easily misunderstand their needs and expectations.Potential responses to each risk – PM should make additional effort to know them better. Perhaps a meeting can be called by PM to know their expectations.The risk owner or person who will own or take responsibility for each risk – Our project managerThe probability of each risk occurring – MediumThe impact of each risk occurring - HighThe status of each risk – PM will setup a meeting within the week
31Performing Qualitative Risk Analysis Assess the likelihood and impact of identified risks to determine their magnitude and priorityOne aspect is to produce a prioritized list of risks.Risk quantification tools and techniques include:Probability/impact matrixesThe Top Ten Risk Item TrackingExpert judgment
32Probability/Impact Matrix A probability/impact matrix or chart lists the relative probability of a risk occurring on one side of a matrix or axis on a chart and the relative impact of the risk occurring on the otherList the risks and then label each one as high, medium, or low in terms of its probability of occurrence and its impact if it did occurCan also calculate risk factorsNumbers that represent the overall risk of specific events based on their probability of occurring and the consequences to the project if they do occur
34Chart Showing High-, Medium-, and Low-Risk Technologies
35Top Ten Risk Item Tracking Top Ten Risk Item Tracking is a qualitative risk analysis tool that helps to identify risks and maintain an awareness of risks throughout the life of a projectEstablish a periodic review of the top ten project risk itemsList the current ranking, previous ranking, number of times the risk appears on the list over a period of time, and a summary of progress made in resolving the risk itemA risk management review accomplishes several objectives.First it keeps management and the customer aware of the major influences that could prevent or enhance the project’s successSecond, by involving the customer, the project team may be able to consider alternate strategies for addressing a risk.Third, it is a means of promoting confidence in the project team by demonstrating to management and the customer that the team is aware of the risks, has a strategy in place and is effectively carrying out the strategy
37Watch listThe main output of the Qualitative risk analysis is updating the risk register.A watch list is a list of risks that are low priority but are still identified as potential risksQualitative analysis can also identify risks that should be evaluated on a quantitative basis
38Performing Quantitative Risk Analysis Often follows qualitative risk analysis, but both can be done togetherLarge, complex projects involving leading edge technologies often require extensive quantitative risk analysisMain techniques include:Decision tree analysisMonte Carlo SimulationSensitivity analysisAssignment # 3:Make groups of six people and study the Quantitative Risk Analysis techniques. Apply the three techniques on a business case involving IT. You will have to present your work next week that is 24-Dec-2013
39Planning Risk Responses After identifying and quantifying risks, you must decide how to respond to them. This involves developing options and defining strategies for reducing negative risks and enhancing positive risks.Four main response strategies for negative risksRisk avoidance – eliminating a specific threat, usually by tackling the causesRisk acceptance – accepting the consequences of a risk if it occurs.Risk transference – shifting the consequence of a risk and it’s responsibility for it’s management to a third party.Risk mitigation – reducing the impact of a risk event by reducing the probability of it’s occurence
40General Risk Mitigation Strategies for Technical, Cost, and Schedule Risks
41Response Strategies for Positive Risks Risk exploitation – doing whatever you can to make sure positive risk happensRisk sharing – allocating ownership of the risk to another partyRisk enhancement – changing size of the opportunity by identifying and maximizing key drivers of the positive risk.Risk acceptance – also applies to positive risks when the project team cannot or chooses not to take any actions towards a risk.
42Residual and Secondary Risks Risk response strategies often include identification of residual and secondary risks as well as contingency plans and reserves.Residual risks are risks that remain after all of the response strategies have been implementedSecondary risks are a direct result of implementing a risk response
43Monitoring and Controlling Risks Involves executing the risk management process to respond to risk events. In other words ensuring the risk awareness among every member of the project team throughout the project’s life.Risk analysis and assessment is also an iterative process.Workarounds are unplanned responses to risk events that must be done when there are no contingency plansMain outputs of risk monitoring and control are:Risk register updatesOrganizational process assets updatesChange requestsUpdates to the project management plan and other project documents
44Using Software to Assist in Project Risk Management Risk registers can be created in a simple Word or Excel file or as part of a databaseMore sophisticated risk management software, such as Monte Carlo simulation tools, help in analyzing project risksYou can purchase add-ons for Excel and Project 2007 to perform simulations
45Chapter SummaryProject risk management is the art and science of identifying, analyzing, and responding to risk throughout the life of a project and in the best interests of meeting project objectivesMain processes include:Plan risk managementIdentify risksPerform qualitative risk analysisPerform quantitative risk analysisPlan risk responsesMonitor and control risks