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Porter's 5 Forces POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUPPLIERS BUYERS SUBSTITUTES INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms

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POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUPPLIERS BUYERS SUBSTITUTES INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms

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POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUPPLIERS BUYERS SUBSTITUTES INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms

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POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUPPLIERS BUYERS SUBSTITUTES INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms

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POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUPPLIERS BUYERS SUBSTITUTES INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms Cross Price Elasticity of Demand % change in sales of X % change in price of Y

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Taking a broad view of competition (to an extreme!) Market share = us / (us + "them") Who are "them"? What goods are considered substitutes? –"The average person requires 64 ounces of liquid per day. Worldwide, Coke sells about 2 ounces per person per day. We remain resolutely focused on going after the other 62."

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POTENTIAL ENTRANTS SUPPLIERS BUYERS SUBSTITUTES INDUSTRY COMPETITORS Rivalry Among Existing Firms

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Competition What are some dimensions along which firms compete? What forms of competition are most destructive?

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Where do you get information about competitors? from their customers (Have you gotten any good offers from other companies?….Really? What kind of deal were they offering?) from their suppliers (Do you have experience providing this level of demand? "We supplied company X with 18,000 widgets last month alone." Hm, you don't say.) from their employees (Sooo, you claim to have relevant work experience….what exactly were you working on in your previous job?) from their products ("Even from their trash!") Understanding competitors is becoming a big deal! Game Theory is being more widely used.

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Game Theory

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What is a game? More than one player Each player has a set of possible strategies. The payoffs to each depends on the strategies chosen by all players. Payoffs represented as a payoff matrix.

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Payoff Matrix for Rock/Paper/Scissors ScissorsPaperRock Scissor s 0, 01, -1-1, 1 Paper-1, 10, 01, -1 Rock1, -1-1, 10, 0 Row Column

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Zero sum and variable sum games Zero sum game: The total payoff to the players is always zero. Variable sum game: The total payoff depends on the strategies chosen by each.

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0 sum or variable sum? ScissorsPaperRock Scissor s 0, 01, -1-1, 1 Paper-1, 10, 01, -1 Rock1, -1-1, 10, 0 Row Column

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Chicken: 0 sum or variable sum? -1, -1-5, 5 5, -5-100, -100 Dennis Swerve Straight Swerve Straight James

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Chicken: The effect of precommitment -5, 5 -100, -100 Dennis Swerve Straight Swerve Straight James

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Cheap talk Bridge Oh Yeah? No matter what, we will fight to the death

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A credible threat Bridge

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Dominance One strategy dominates another if its payoff is always at least as high as the payoff from another strategy, regardless of what the other player does. (Dominance reasoning usually coupled with a rationality assumption: Assume that the other player is rational. Assume that the other player knows that you are rational. Assume that the other player knows that you know that they are rational, and so on.)

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The Prisoner’s Dilemma: -2, -2-10, 0 0, -10-8, -8 Mary Not confess Confess Not confess Confess Mike

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Does Mike have a dominant strategy? -2, -2-10, 0 0, -10-8, -8 Mary Not confess Confess Not confess Confess Mike

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Does Mary have a dominant strategy? -2, -2-10, 0 0, -10-8, -8 Mary Not confess Confess Not confess Confess Mike

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Nash Equilibrium -2, -2-10, 0 0, -10-8, -8 Mary Not confess Confess Not confess Confess Mike A Nash equilibrium occurs when neither player can unilaterally act to improve their payoff.

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Competition, cooperation, & the "prisoners dilemma" Company B's price Company A's price A=$8K B=$8K A=$4K B=$13K A=$10K B=$10K A=$13K B=$4K $200$300 $200 $300

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A=$0.25 B=$0.25 A=$0 B=$1 A=$0.60 B=$0.60 A=$1 B=$0 make war B make love make war make love 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B

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