Presentation on theme: "KUMPULAN 2 A CLOSER LOOK 13.4 & A CLOSER LOOK13.5 NAME : MATRIK NO : NOR MELISSA BT AZLAN D20072030862 AZIZAH BT SADELID20072030866 ZARINA BT SULEIMAND20072030867."— Presentation transcript:
KUMPULAN 2 A CLOSER LOOK 13.4 & A CLOSER LOOK13.5 NAME : MATRIK NO : NOR MELISSA BT AZLAN D AZIZAH BT SADELID ZARINA BT SULEIMAND NUR HIDAYATI BT ISMAILD ROSE DIANI BT ZAINID
Identifying High-Payoff Projects WFF (Wing Fat Foods) – wholesaler, delivering perishable and nonperishable foodstuffs as well as hardware, kitchenware and household to restaurants, groceries and similar business along the Atlantic Coast of the United States.
CSC Method Step 1 Pre-study preparation : Determine scope and participants and collect project idea stimuli. The analyst invited 25 IT users to participate in an in-depth interview Collected project ideas to serve as stimuli. Step 2 Participant interviews : Elicit personal constructs from organization members. Conducted minute interviews with each participant Showing the participant three system description Asking him or her to rank the system attributes and explain their importance to the organization (a line of questions was asked until the participant suggested a concrete feature or attribute) The analyst collect about 8 chains of suggestions per participant.
Step 3 Analysis : Aggregate personal constructs into CSC models Clustered the interview statements into constructs and mapped it into a matrix. Mapping each cluster into CSC map Represented the the construct as nodes and the links in the chains as lines connecting the nodes. Clustered the chains using the Ward and Peppard strategic planning framework. The depicts an organization-specific CSC model consists : From left to right Descriptions of desired system attributes Resulting expected performance outcomes Associated organizational goals
Step 4 Idea workshops : Elicit feasible strategic IT from technical and business experts and customers CSC maps were used by both IT professionals from within WFF and non-IT customers as starting point for developing a portfolio of IT proposals. Yield 14 project ideas including decision support system for scheduling, routing and loading trucks for delivery as well as the support activities for existing systems including training and updated equipement and maintenance support.
Resource Allocation Consists of developing the plans for hardware, software, data communications and networks, facilities, personnel and financial – to execute the master development plan. A contentious process in most organizations because opportunities and requests for spending far exceed the available funds – can lead to intense, highly political competition among organizational units. Requests for funding approval from the steering committee fall into 2 categories : 1 st category : consists of projects and infrastructure that are critical for the organization to stay in business. Example : it may imperative to purchase or upgrade hardware if the network or disk drives or the processor on the main computer are approaching capacity limits. 2 nd category : consists of less-critical items such as new projects, maintenance or upgrades of existing systems and infrastructure to support systems and future needs.
Outsourcing, Offshore Outsourcing and IT as a Subsidy Outsourcing is contracting work to be completed by an outside vendor. The major reasons for outsourcing, cited by a survey of large US companies are : Desire to focus on core competency (36%) Cost reduction (36%) Improve quality (13%) Increase speed to market (10%) Faster innovation (4%) CIOs are now focusing more on outsourcing to deliver business value beyond the traditional areas of cost savings and operational efficiencies in response to increasingly dynamic environment. Over 45% of the firms that expect to be involved in outsourcing reported applications development is likely to lead all other IT functions outsourced followed by applications maintenance (35%), telecommunications/LAN (33%) and PC maintenance (33%).
Since the late 1980s, many organizations have outsourced the majority of their IT functions rather than just incidental parts. The trend became classic in 1989 when Eastman Kodak transferred its data centers to IBM under 10 year, $500 million contract.
Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Transactional outsourcing agreements – company outsources discrete processes that have well-defined business rules, have a success rate of 90%. Co-sourcing alliances – client company outsourcer vendor jointly manage projects such as application development or maintenance work, have a success rate of 63%. Strategic partnerships – a single outsourcer takes responsibility for the majority of a client company’s IT services, has a success rate of about 50%. Potential outsourcing benefits : Financial Avoidance of heavy capital investment, thereby releasing funds for other uses. Improved cash flow and cost accountability Improved cost benefits from economies of scale and from sharing computer housing, hardware, software and personnel.
Less need for expensive office space. Reduction and control of operating costs. Technical Access to new information technologies Greater freedom to choose software due to a wider range of hardware Ability to achieve technological improvements more easily Greater access to technical skills not available internally Faster application development and placement of IT applications into service. Management Concentration on developing and running core business activity. Improved company focus. Delegation of IT development (design, production and acquisition) and operational responsibility to suppliers Elimination of need to recruit and retain competent IT staff Reduced risk of bad software. Human Resources Opportunity to draw on specialist skills available from a pool of expertise when needed. Enriched career development and opportunities for remaining staff.
Quality Clearly defined service levels Improved performance accountability Improved quality accreditation Flexibility Quick response to business demands (agility) Ability to handle IT peaks and valleys more effectively (flexibility). Disadvantages shirking occurs when a vendor deliberately underperforms while claiming full payment. poaching occurs when a vendor develops a strategic application for a client and then uses it for other clients. opportunistic repricing (“”holdup”) occurs when a client enters into a long term contract with a vendor and the vendor changes financial terms at some point or over-charges for unanticipated enhancements and contract extensions.
Irreversibility of the outsourcing decision possible breach of contract by the vendor or its inability to deliver Loss of control over IT decisions Loss of critical IT skills Vendor lock-in Loss of control over data Loss of employee morale and productivity Uncontrollable contract growth Failure to consider all of costs
In making a decision to outsource, executives should consider 5 major risk areas : i. Higher developmental or operational costs than anticipated ii. Inability to provide the expected service levels at implementation iii. Exceeding the time to continue iv. Neglecting to navigate the internal politics of the outsourcing company Strategies For Outsourcing
There have 6 Strategies : 1. Understand the project have a high degree of understanding of the project. 2. Divide and conquer Dividing a large project into smaller and more manageable pieces. 3. Align incentives Designing contractual incentives based on activities that can be measured accurately can result in achieving desired performance.
4. Write short-period contracts Contract may be written for 5-10 year terms. 5. Control subcontracting Vendors may subcontract some of the services to other vendors. 6. Do selective outsourcing Cramm (2001) suggests than an organization insource important work, such as strategic applications, investments and HRM. Continue…
Is outsourcing with a vendor located in a country other than the one in which the client company is based. This trend is primarily due to : i) global markets ii) lower cost iii) increased access to skilled labor Aspray (2006) Worldwide : Regional divisions of labor India – US Eastern Europe, Russia – Western Europe China – Asia Pacific, Japan Offshore Outsourcing
Outsourcing can be done in many countries with various outsourcers. Factor : cost, technical capabilities, business and political environment, quality infrastructure, risk About one-third of Fortune 500 companies outsource software development to software companies in India. It can reduce IT expenditures by 15% - 25% within the first year and in long term, outsourcing can help reduce cost and improve the quality of IT services delivered. (Davison, 2004) Continue…
However, organizations must balance the risks and fears involved in offshore outsourcing including : Cost-reduction expectations Data/security and protection Process discipline which is the use of the same process repeatedly without innovation Loss of business knowledge Vendor failure to deliver Scope creep, which is the request for additional services not included in the outsourcing agreement Government oversight/regulation Differences in culture Knowledge transfer Continue…
Based on cased study, the types of work that are not readily offshore outsourced including : Work that has not been routinized Work that if offshored would result in the client company losing too much control over critical operations Situations in which offshoring would place the client company at too great a risk to its data security, data privacy or intellectual property and proprietary information Business activities that rely on an uncommon combination of specific application-domain knowledge and IT knowledge in order to do the work properly. Continue…
Evaluating Outsourcing In a survey of senior IT managers in the US and Europe, undertaken by IDG Research Services, the majority rated their ability to measure the business value of outsourcing relationships as “fair” or “poor”. For outsourcing, the balance scorecard (described in section 13.3 and table 13.6) can be applied to assess value creation in the outsourcing relationship. Software applications such as dashboard for tracking specific measures can provide metrics. The balance scorecard can also be used to provide periodic feedback of the value of the outsourcing agreement.