Presentation on theme: "1 Agglomeration Economies Chapter 5. 2 To cluster or not to cluster? a.k.a: external economies; cluster economies Agglomeration Economies: lower production."— Presentation transcript:
1 Agglomeration Economies Chapter 5
2 To cluster or not to cluster? a.k.a: external economies; cluster economies Agglomeration Economies: lower production costs attract clusters Diseconomies of agglomeration: very large clusters repel economic activity
3 Types of Agglomeration Economies Localization Economies decrease the cost of production for every firm in a specific industry. Urbanization Economies decrease the cost of production for every firm that locates in a particular city regardless of industry.
4 Benefits of clusters Clusters may increase product demand, allowing firms to benefit from internal economies of scale. Marshalian externalities from clusters: –Pools of specialized labor –Specialized firms –Technological spillovers
5 Localization Economies Pools of specialized labor –Easy to poach labor from competitors –Specialized training exists –Formal/informal communication (Saxonian)
6 Localization Economies Specialized resources –Backward linkages (upstream products) (supplier of inputs) –Forward linkages (downstream products) (buyer of output) –Face to face communication –JIT –Producer services (outsourcing) –Capital markets/bankers understand that industry
7 Localization Economies Technological spillovers (technological externalities) –Stimulate innovation –Often created from poached labor
8 Urbanization Economies Advantages connected with the size of an urban area regardless of industry. Specialized labor: –Law of large numbers: lower unemployment rate if workers are willing and able to change industries. –More special services than in rural areas.
9 Urbanization Economies Specialized resources –Urban vs Rural Infrastructure –Large city projects less risky to finance Technological spillovers –Novelty by combination from great variety of goods in a city.
10 Perfectly competitive firm in long-run equilibrium
11 Imperfect competitor with normal profit
12 Technical average cost and total average cost curves of imperfect competitor
13 Appendix: Location under Uncertainty Table 5A–1. Payoff Matrix (in millions) RecessionModerate GrowthBoom Site Site Site Site
14 Table 5A–2. Laplace (equal probability) Payoff Matrix (in millions) RecessionModerate GrowthBoom Average payoff Site Site Site Site
15 Table 5A–3. Bayesian (weighted probability) Payoff Matrix (in millions) Recession (50% probability) Moderate Growth (40% probability) Boom (10% probability) Weighed payoff Site Site Site Site
16 Table 5A–4. Payoff Matrix (in millions) RecessionModerate GrowthBoom Site Site 2 (Maximin) Site 3 (Maximax) Site
17 Minimax Regret Table 5A–5. Regret Matrix (in $ millions) RecessionModerate GrowthBoom Site Site Site Site 4400