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Preventing & Treating Pressure Ulcers By Kathleen Baldwin, RN, ANP, GNP, CNS, PhD Nursing made Incredibly Easy! January/February 2006 3.0 ANCC/AACN contact.

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Presentation on theme: "Preventing & Treating Pressure Ulcers By Kathleen Baldwin, RN, ANP, GNP, CNS, PhD Nursing made Incredibly Easy! January/February 2006 3.0 ANCC/AACN contact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preventing & Treating Pressure Ulcers By Kathleen Baldwin, RN, ANP, GNP, CNS, PhD Nursing made Incredibly Easy! January/February ANCC/AACN contact hours Online: © 2006 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All world rights reserved.

2 Pressure Ulcers 101 Pressure ulcer: Any lesion caused by unrelieved pressure that results in damage to the underlying tissue (National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel) Small amount of pressure over long period is just as damaging as large amount over short period.

3 Causes Friction-Visible on skin surface; two surfaces move against each other Shear-Injury beneath skin surface; patient’s skin moves one way, bed sheets move opposite when moving patient

4 Vulnerable Areas Most common sites in adults: sacrum/coccyx and heels Most common sites in children not paralyzed: back of the head (occiput) But the area over any bony prominence is vulnerable

5 Theories How do pressure ulcers develop? Theory one: Pressure ulcers begin at the bone and move outward. Theory two: Pressure ulcers start from the skin and work inward

6 Prevention is Key Which patients are at risk? mobility deficit incontinence inadequate nutrition skin abnormalities increased age light skin pigment diabetes stroke hypotension

7 Identifying At-Risk Patients Agency for Health Care Research & Quality recommends two tools: Braden Scale-Most widely used; focuses on intensity/duration of pressure & tissue tolerance for pressure; Norton Scale-Developed in United Kingdom; also used, but not as often

8 JCAHO JCAHO 2006 national patient safety goal for long-term care: prevention of health care-associated pressure ulcers Predict, prevent, and provide early treatment: identify at-risk individuals protect patient from injury reduce pressure ulcers via education

9 Assessment Recommendations Acute care-On admission & every hours, or when patient condition changes Long-term care-On admission, then weekly for first 4 weeks, monthly to quarterly after that, & when patient condition changes Home health care-On admission & every visit

10 Interventions Manage moisture Individualize bathing frequency Use a mild soap Don’t rub skin, pat dry Use moisture barrier on skin, incontinence products that pull moisture away from skin

11 Interventions Manage nutrition Consult dietitian to correct diet deficits Ensure adequate intake of calories, protein, vitamin C, and zinc

12 Interventions Manage mobility Elevate HOB no more than 30 degrees Use lift devices to prevent friction/shear Protect elbows, heels, sacrum Turn patients frequently PT consult to aid patient in mobility Specialty beds/mattresses for high risk patients

13 Pressure Ulcer Staging Staging system developed by National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Stages I through IV; see Can’t stage a pressure ulcer until the deepest viable tissue layer is visible

14 Documenting Pressure Ulcers Location of pressure ulcer Size (length & width) Stage (indicates depth/damage) Presence of sinus tracts Amount/color/consistency/odor of exudate Presence/absence of necrotic tissue Presence/absence epithelialization

15 Types of Debridement Sharp/surgical-Use of scalpel, scissors, forceps to remove dead tissue; performed by physician and specially trained nurse or therapist Mechanical-Use of force to remove dead tissue (wet-to-dry dressings, irrigation) Autolytic-Cover wound with dressing (films, occlusive, transparent) and allow body’s natural wound fluids to loosen dead tissue Enzymatic-Enzyme applied to wound to remove dead tissue (papain-urea, collagenase)

16 Last Words Dressings should be individualized! Pain should be assessed & adequately managed! Don’t massage bony prominences, use doughnut-type devices, or allow skin to become dried out!


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