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Chapter 18 LSSC AMH 2020. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Typical sweat shop Employed 500 people 60-72 hour workdays $6-7 dollars a week Owners kept.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 LSSC AMH 2020. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Typical sweat shop Employed 500 people 60-72 hour workdays $6-7 dollars a week Owners kept."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 LSSC AMH 2020

2 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Typical sweat shop Employed 500 people 60-72 hour workdays $6-7 dollars a week Owners kept doors locked

3 Triangle Factory Fire March 1911 Textiles flammable Gas lighting Smoking Fire started on top floors -trapped in building -some jumped from windows Worst industrial accident in New York history

4 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

5 Triangle Factory Fire

6 Trial Owners put on trial For illegal working conditions Acquitted of all charges Civil Case Families awarded $75.00 per death

7 Life on the Farm 1920 1/3 of American lived on a farm Feeling less isolated Crops are selling for more money Remains difficult for share croppers

8 Investigative Journalism “Muckrakers” Report on ills of industry Expose corruption in industry Investigations in all areas Government Labor unions Big business Wall Street

9

10 Ida Tarbell Wrote an expose on Standard Oil

11 Muckrackers Upton Sinclair Wrote The Jungle Illustrated meat-packing industry Led to food/medicine regulations

12 Immigrants in America 1900 European immigrants Eastern European Catholic Asian Foreign Many Americans wanted strict immigration laws

13 Immigrants Mexicans 1900- 2,000 1920- 54,000 Civil war in Mexico, many flee to U.S. Chinese and Japanese immigrants in West anti-Chinese laws slowed immigration 1917- Immigration laws begins to limit immigrants

14 Rise of Consumerism Department stores Mail order catalogs

15 Changing Society RuralUrban life Eating store bought foods Wearing store bought clothing

16 Department Stores

17 Mail Order Catalogs

18 Leisure time

19 Vaudeville

20 Women rights Law of Covertures Women do not, by law, have a separate legal existence from their husbands Could not own property Lost children in divorce proceedings Could not technically own earnings A contract could be signed prior to marriage This was rare

21 Women and the workplace Becoming self-sufficient Usually worked out of necessity Demanding more rights States began to amend laws

22 Feminist writers Charlotte Perkins Gilman Urged women to have more control over their lives

23 Henry Ford Founded Ford Motor Company Standardization and mass production Automobiles were made affordable to most people

24 The Ford Model T

25 Ford Model T “Tin Lizzies” 20 hp engine Body of steel One color (black) First Model T cost $845.00 By 1925 Model T cost $290.00 By 1927, 15 million Model T’s on the road

26 Assembly line

27 Doctrine of High Wages Workers with extra money, could buy more 1915- Dearborn Michigan, $5.00 a day wage 40 hour work week Work week was 5 days

28 Business improvements Mass production Assembly line, focused on speed and productivity Increased mechanization Systematic record keeping Accounting, inventory, and production control Sometimes assembly lines ordered to “speed up”

29 Doctrine of High Wages Workers with extra money, could buy more 1915- Dearborn Michigan, $5.00 a day wage 40 hour work week Work week was 5 days

30 Business improvements Mass production Assembly line, focused on speed and productivity Increased mechanization Systematic record keeping Accounting, inventory, and production control Sometimes assembly lines ordered to “speed up”

31 Frederick Winslow Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management Improves early business practices Use scientific management principals to maximize efficiency

32 Socialism Growing in popularity Daniel De Leon Failed to gain public support Eugene Debs American Railway Union leader Formed a stronger Socialist Party of America Good speaker, poor organizer

33 Socialism Gaining in momentum 1911 Socialist mayors in 32 cities 1/3 of Oklahoma voters Socialist Most people did not want to overthrow capitalism, but wanted reform

34 Popularity of Socalism Eugene Debs ran with increasing success 1900- 100,000 1904- 400,000 1912- 900,000 Peaks in 1912

35 Decline of Socialism Direct primaries Reforms enacted Interest groups better at lobbying for specific laws Anti-war stance killed rural support

36 AFL Samuel Gompers 1904 1.7 million members Skilled workers Better wages Better conditions Wanted to work with management

37 Women’s Trade Union League Staged strikes and walkouts in New York Wanted unlocked doors and fire escapes Formed arbitration committee for collective bargaining Became a model for future labor meetings

38 Women’s Trade Union League

39 Owners and Managers Had to deal with unions and worker issues Some built relationships Some “cracked down” on workers who complained Many companies attempt to form bonds with workers

40 Women and reproductive rights Birth control Controversial Margaret Sanger Nurse Promoted reproductive education and freedom for women

41 Comstock Law Designed to curb vice and legislate morality Law banned from the mail all material designed to incite lust. 3,000 arrests made Destroyed 160 tons of material

42 Margaret Sanger

43 Sigmund Freud Father of Psychoanalysis Unconscious mind Sex a motive for behavior Examines dreams

44 Progressives Wanted to reform industry Improve the human aspects End corruption Government Corporate

45 Society White Protestant Duty to reform Social science Studying best way to improve Professionals Encouraging professional development Schools opening

46 Rise of Professionalism Educated professions Professional organizations forming Managers Architects Technicians Accountants City governments running more efficiently

47 Social justice movement Settlement house movement Child labor Tenement safety Better working conditions Wanted to “fix” problems in society

48 Social Work  Social Work schools open across United States  University of Chicago “ The Standard of Living Among Working Men’s Families in New York City ” Loaded with statistics Published in 1909

49 Social Work  Social Work schools open across United States  University of Chicago “ The Standard of Living Among Working Men’s Families in New York City ” Loaded with statistics Published in 1909

50 Women’s Suffrage 1900 – Carrie Chapman Catt President of National American Women’s Suffrage Assoc. Organized Focused on state law’s first Called it a “winning plan”

51 Carrie Chapman Catt

52 Pragmatism Rejected belief that sinfulness was in-born Believed people had greater potential for good Beginning to examine environment People acted poorly because of circumstance

53 John Dewey Theories on education Univ. of Chicago Learn by doing Allowed students more interacation

54 Muller vs. Oregon A laundry owner challenged labor law Louis Brandeis argued for workers “Brandeis Brief” Documented damage of working long hours 102 pages of studies 2 pages of legal precedents

55 Louis Brandeis

56 National Municipal League Formed in 1894 Designed to combat corrupt city governments Improve public services

57 State level Protect women and children Regulate public works Tax Improve state institutions Workmens comp State inspectors for industry

58 Robert M. La Follettte Reformer Governor of Wisconsin Republican Hated corruption Had academics/scholars write legislation “Protect people from selfish interests”

59 Robert La Follette “Wisconsin Idea” Est. Industrial commission Improved sanitation Improved education Workmen’s comp Adopted state primaries for all offices Wisconsin became a model for reform.

60 Robert La Follette

61 Settlement Houses First one was in New York City 1886 Spread across the country Hull House Established in Chicago, 1889 Run by middle-class Helped immigrants assimilate Offered classes on a variety of different activities Offered kindergarten

62 Hull House

63 Jane Addams

64 National Politics in the Progressive Era

65 Progress in Washington September 6, 1901 McKinley is shot Theodore Roosevelt is now president -youngest, at 42 Roosevelt is credited with bringing the Progressive movement to Washington

66 Teddy Roosevelt

67 Theodore Roosevelt Born to a wealthy New York family Physical limitations Tragic events in his life Worked in New York state assembly NYC police commissioner Assistant Secretary of the Navy Governor of New York Vice President under McKinley

68 Trust Busters Regulate good, eliminate bad Department of Commerce and Labor -monitor interstate commerce -enforce regulation

69 Major trust bust Northern Securities Company Railroads Rockefeller, Morgan, Harriman all upset Busted beef, tobacco, trusts, Dupont, Standard Oil Supreme Court upheld Anti-trust laws

70

71 Square Deal

72 The Square Deal TR was a progressive conservative Supportive of industry, needed monitoring Labor 1902 Coal strike TR intervenes Strike is settled

73 Election of 1904

74 Food and Drug Meat Inspection Act 1906 sanitary meat packing Pure Food and Drug Act Danger of patent meds. Must list ingredients

75 Conservation 1905 National Forest Service Protect and manage natural resources Federal regulations Sierra Club John Muir Disliked this movement Compromised natural beauty

76 1908 National Commission on the Conservation of Natural Resources Regulated Water Forests Lands mineral

77 William Howard Taft

78 Taft Republican From Ohio Lawyer Governor of Philippines Secretary of War

79 Ballinger-Pinchot Affair Ballinger wanted to loosen regulations on federal lands Secretary of Interior under Taft Opened millions of acres for public sale Pinchot-chief forester Furious, found report of improper dealings Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination Progressives now distrusted Taft

80 Taft and Tr Opposite sides of Ballinger-Pinchot Taft busted what TR saw as good trusts Brought TR back into politics

81 New Nationalism TR back on the national stage Help business Help labor Equal rights for women Equal rights for blacks TR decides to run again This splits the Republican party Taft wins the primary

82 Bull Moose Party

83 Election of 1912 Roosevelt campaigned hard as a Progressive Democrats nominated Woodrow Wilson Taft didn’t bother campaigning

84 Election of 1912

85 New Freedom Woodrow Wilson Free America from wealthy and powerful Regulated competition Did not like government involved in business Won the election easily

86 Woodrow Wilson Born in Virginia Hated the tariff Segregationist Did not tolerate differing opinions

87 Underwood-Simmons Tariff Biggest reduction in tariff since Civil War Introduced Income tax

88 16 th Amendment Income Tax -graduated amount -applied to companies -applied to anyone who made over $4,000

89 Shift in government revenue 19 th century Sale of public lands, alcohol tax, customs, duties 20 th century Personal and corporate income tax

90 Stabilizing banking system 1913 Federal Reserve Act Efficient banking system Sound currency Paper money Central bank Federal reserve board 1914 Federal Trade Commission Oversee and regulate commerce

91 Clayton Anti-Trust Act of 1914 Regulated trusts Did not “bust” Prohibited unfair trade practices Approved lawful strikes

92


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