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Unexpected Outcomes: The End of an Era. Yes, Détente had come to an end in 1979, with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. And the Sandinista revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Unexpected Outcomes: The End of an Era. Yes, Détente had come to an end in 1979, with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. And the Sandinista revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unexpected Outcomes: The End of an Era

2 Yes, Détente had come to an end in 1979, with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. And the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua (1979) also increased tensions: The Soviets supported the Marxist Sandinistas. The U.S. sponsored their enemies, the Contras. So, the latest arms treaty (SALT II ) went unratified!

3 But the Soviet Economy was stagnating. A. There were shortages of consumer goods. B. Soviet citizens waited on long lines. C. Yet communist officials lived lavishly.

4 Mikhail Gorbachev inherited a Soviet Union on the verge of collapse ( ) -He decided a thorough reform was in order!

5 Gorbachev’s Reform: Perestroika (“restructuring”) 1. Tried to strengthen the Soviet economy A. Allowed limited free enterprise B. Loosened rules regarding private property

6 Gorbachev Reform: Glasnost (“openness”) 1. Provided for greater freedom of the press and media A. Hope that greater freedoms would lead to greater motivation in the economic sphere

7 Gorbachev even began to loosen the Soviet Union’s grip on Eastern Europe! A. His stance toward Eastern Europe contributed to a Nobel Peace Prize in Yes, Gorbachev informed East European communist leaders that the Soviet Union would not go to the financial expense of supporting them militarily

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9 A.Solidarity, a Polish labor union and political party under the leadership of Lech Walesa, was allowed to take part in nationwide elections in 1989, winning a huge victory and bringing a noncommunist leadership to power B.The Hungarian Communist Party voted itself out of existence C. And in Czechoslovakia’s “Velvet Revolution,” Vaclav Havel’s dissident movement, Civic Forum, swept to power

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11 And of course, there was German unification!

12 But with freedom came unexpected consequences! - On December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigned as leader of the Soviet Union and at the same time declared an end to the USSR itself. - When people have choices and can vote, the outcome may surprise you.

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14 But in China, Deng Xiaoping reformed the command economy of Communism while preserving the communist political system.

15 Deng introduced programs like “Four Modernizations” and the “Responsibility System” – programs that introduced elements of the free market into China’s economy.

16 But while Deng Xiaoping introduced elements of the free market, he did NOT allow freedom of speech.

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