2InjuriesIn athletics many sports related injuries come from lack of properly stretching, or not exercising properly.The most common sports injuries are:Osgood-schlatters , patello femoral, acl tears, stress fractures, shin splints, ankle sprains, and groin pulls.
3Osgood-schlatterOsgood-Schlatter disease is a disorder of the lower front of the knee where the large tendon under the kneecap (patellar tendon) attaches to the bone of the leg below. (tibia) The condition is characterized by localized pain and tenderness in this area. Osgood-Schlatter disease is predominantly seen in young adolescent boys. It is felt that stress on the bone from the tendon tugging it during activities leads to Osgood-Schlatter disease.
4X-rayMost common targets of Osgood schlatters disease are in young boys and girls in the ages of 9-16, involved in youth sports and in their growth spurts.
5Patellofemoralabnormal softening of the cartilage of the under the kneecap (patella). patellofemoral is the most common cause of chronic knee pain. Patellaofemoral results from degeneration of cartilage due to poor alignment of the kneecap as it slides over the lower end of the thigh bone (femur). Tends to occur in adolescents . Preblems begin when you are doing too much physical activity and not allowing timeto recover.
6Physical TherapyStrengthening the quadriceps and stretching for a duration of seconds this is necessary for restricting the poor alignment of the patella, also reducing pain.Ice packs are frequently used to prevent inflamation and pain during and after activity. Also incorporated into physical therapy includes electrical stimulation and biofeedback.
7ACL tearsProbably one of the most common accidents related to sports injuries would be the ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament tear.
8What is an ACL tear?A torn ACL is an injury or tear to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ACL is one of the four main stabilising ligaments of the knee, the others being the Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL), Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL). The ACL attaches to the knee end of the Femur (thigh bone), at the back of the joint and passes down through the knee joint to the front of the flat upper surface of the Tibia (shin bone).
10Symptoms/AssessmentMay be a subtle crack sound during the time of injury, an initial feeling of instability and extremely painful feeling immediately proceeding the injury.After a doctor confirms ACL tear surgery will most likely immediately take place, unless the doctor wants the client to strengthen the knee before surgery to make the recovery process quicker. Surgical reconstruction of the torn ACL is performed using either an extra articular technique (taking a structure that lies outside the joint capsule like a portion of the hamstring tendon) or an intra articular technique (using a structure from within the knee such as part of the patellar tendon) which will replace the anterior cruciate ligament.
11Stress FracturesA stress fracture is a break in a bone caused by repetitive forces. Stress fractures do no go completely through a bone as other fractures sometimes do. Since they are associated with heavy training, stress fractures can be mimicked by injuries to the muscles, tendons, ligaments and other fractures.
12Symptoms/TreatmentThe most common complaint for a stress fracture is pain. The pain is usually mild and related to strenuous or jarring activities initially. As severity of the injury progresses, an athlete may have pain with less strenuous activity. The pain can become sharp, localized and worse with weight bearing. Eventually, pain may occur with walking or at rest.The treatment for a stress fracture is rest from the offending activity. Four to six weeks of rest is usually sufficient, followed by a gradual increase to full activity. Immobilization in a brace or cast is done for situations in which there is pain with walking or at rest. Non-stress/non-impact training such as swimming or bicycling is generally safe and helps maintain fitness. For certain fractures, orthopedic referral is necessary if there is a risk that the fracture will not heal properly.
13PreventionPreventing stress fractures is very important. Avoiding significant changes in frequency or intensity of training will help avoid multiple types of injuries, including stress fractures. Good footwear with limited wear and shoe inserts that absorb shock are helpful. A diet with substantial vitamin D and calcium can help improve bone density for individuals with this risk factor. Eating disorders rob the body of essential nutrients and hormones needed to maintain good bone health. If any problem exists with eating behaviour or if a woman is having no periods, these issues should be addressed immediately. Avoiding carbonated beverages, alcohol and tobacco helps to reduce the risk of low bone mineral density.
14Shin splintsThe term shin splints is a name often given to any pain at the front of the lower leg. However, true shin splints symptoms occur at the front inside of the shin bone and can arise from a number of causes.
15Symptoms/Causes Pain over the inside lower half of the shin. Pain at the start of exercise which often eases as the session continuesPain often returns after activity and may be at its worse the next morning.Sometimes some swelling.Lumps and bumps may be felt when feeling the inside of the shin bone.Pain when the toes or foot are bent downwards.A redness over the inside of the shin (not always present).The most common cause is inflammation of the periostium of the tibia (sheath surrounding the bone). Traction forces on the periosteum from the muscles of the lower leg cause shin pain and inflammation. This has lead to the use of terms such as Medial Tibial Traction Periostitis.Shin splints can be caused by a number of factors which are mainly biomechanical (abnormal movement patterns) and errors in training. Here are the most common causes:Overpronation of the feet oversupination of the feetInadequate footwear increasing training too quicklyRunning on hard surfaces decreased flexibility at the ankle joint
16TreatmentTreatment for shin splints is as simple as reducing pain and inflammation, identifying training and biomechanical problems which may have helped cause the injury initially, restoring muscles to their original condition and gradually returning to training.
17Ankle sprainsA high ankle sprain, refers to damage to the ligament which joins the Tibia and Fibula together, just above the ankle. This ligament is called the anterior tibiofibular ligament.
18Treatment RICE protocol: Rest, ice, compression, elevation Rest: Limit weight bearing using crutches if necessaryIce: Use a ice pack, bag of peas, or specially designed wrap to apply cold therapy to the ankle as soon as possible following injury and then every 3-4 hours for 15 minutes at a time over the first 48 hoursCompression: Wear a compression bandage to help support and reduce swellingElevation: When sitting, raise the ankle up above the heart to help reduce swelling and bruisingWhat can a professional do?Prescribe anti-inflammatory and pain killing medication such as ibuprofenPerform sports massage after a period of 72 hours to help reduce swelling, loosen muscles and prevent the build-up of scar tissueProvide ultrasound treatment to help the ligament healDemonstrate stretching exercises to help the ankle mobileOnce pain-free, begin strengthening exercises
19Groin pullsA groin pull, or groin strain, is a type of sports injury in which one of the adductor muscles in the groin area is torn or ruptured. Groin pulls commonly occur when sprinting or rapidly moving the leg against resistance, as when kicking a ball. For minor groin pulls, you may recover with rest, ice and gentle stretching; more severe pulls may require medical treatment, including surgery, which may be necessary if the muscle is torn completely.
20TreatmentEssential home treatment for a groin pull is described with the acronym RICE, representing rest, ice, compression and elevation. Ice or cold therapy with compression and leg elevation should be applied for 15 minutes every two hours for at least two days after a groin pull. Rest the injury by avoiding activities that cause pain for at least five days and using crutches if it hurts to walk. Another type of treatment for a groin pull is strapping, in which a doctor or sports injury specialist straps medical tape around the injured muscles to help support them and prevent further injury. Other professional treatments for groin pull rehabilitation include sports massage therapy, ultrasound or laser treatment and, in cases where the muscle has torn completely, surgery.