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Cell Division Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Division Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Division Chapter 10

2 Why do you think cells in all plants and organisms need to divide?
To replace damaged tissue To increase in size (the organism) To reproduce

3 Repair Cells are constantly repairing themselves
If a cell can’t be repaired new ones are produced to fill the void

4 Growth Cells are also what create our size
As we grow our cells are constantly reproducing If the reproduction rate is faster than normal, we grow

5 Reproduction Asexual Sexual Done by somatic or body cells
Done also by unicellular organisms Creates identical daughter cells Done by gametes or sex cells Creates genetically different daughter cells

6 What does the DNA look like inside the nucleus of the cell?
When the cell is not dividing, the DNA looks like a tangled mass called CHROMATIN

7 When the cell is ready to divide, the DNA condenses into CHROMOSOMES
Sister chromatids Centromere TEM 36,600 Chromosome: a compacted piece of chromatin that is used for cell division Sister Chromatids: A pair of identical Chromosomes Centromere: The center section where the sister chromatids are connected

8 DNA supercoil

9 Chromosome distribution to daughter cells
LE 8-4 Sister chromatids Centromere TEM 36,600 Sister chromatids Chromosome distribution to daughter cells duplication


11 How do cells divide? Cell Cycle: an orderly sequence of events where cells divide The cell cycle consists of two major phases Interphase (90% of the time) Mitotic Phase/cell division (10% of the time)

12 The Cell Cycle In humans and other mammals, cells that reproduce daily have a cell cycle that usually lasts 10 to 20 hours.

13 The Cell Cycle: series of events that cells go through from “birth” to reproduction

14 Interphase Phase where all metabolic processes and functions happen
Ex: Cellular respiration Protein creation Movement Growth Other desired function

15 Interphase Interphase is also when the cell prepares for cell division
Ex: Increases proteins Duplicates organelles Grows in size Replication (duplication) of DNA

16 Mitotic Phase The division phase of the cell
There are two main parts of M phase Mitosis Cytokinesis

17 Mitotic phase Mitosis Cytokinesis
The division of a cells nucleus and DNA into two equal parts Creates two daughter nuclei Cytokinesis The division of the cells cytoplasm Together they create two identical daughter cells

18 Mitosis Prophase: Metaphase: Sister chromatids are formed
Formation of spindle Nuclear envelope breaks down Metaphase: Sister chromatids line up Spindle is formed and attaching to chromosomes

spindle Fragments of nuclear envelope Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Centrosome Chromatin Kinetochore Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Centromere Spindle microtubules

20 Mitosis Anaphase: Telophase: Cytokinesis:
Separation of sister chromatids Spindle pulls chromosomes to either side of the cell Telophase: Spindle breaks down Nuclear envelopes form (2) Chromosomes loosen to become chromatin Cytokinesis: After mitosis, cell pulls apart to create two identical cells

21 LE 8-6b Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Nuclear
ANAPHASE TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Nuclear envelope forming Daughter chromosomes Spindle

22 Cytokinesis in animal cells
Cleavage furrow Cleavage furrow Daughter cells Contracting ring of microfilaments SEM 140 Animal Plants Formation begins with indentation Cell is pulled/ pinched until it breaks apart Formation begins with a disc containing cell wall materials A cell plate forms between the two nuclei

23 Cytokinesis in plant cells
Formation begins with a disc containing cell wall materials A cell plate forms between the two nuclei Cell wall New cell wall Daughter cells Cell plate Vesicles containing cell wall material


25 Benign vs. malignant tumor
Benign tumor: abnormal mass of normal cells Malignant tumor: Masses of cells that result from the reproduction of cancer cells Cancer Disease caused by cells that loose their ability to control rate of division



28 Cell Differentiation

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