Presentation on theme: "First Aid and Safety What is First Aid?. First Aid is the immediate and temporary care given to an injured or suddenly ill person. DOES NOT take the place."— Presentation transcript:
First Aid is the immediate and temporary care given to an injured or suddenly ill person. DOES NOT take the place of proper medical treatment. -seizure in health class -injury in PE class -car accident with friend Would you help?????
Topics we will cover Shock Cardiac emergencies (Hands only CPR) Breathing emergencies Bleeding emergencies (bandaging wounds) Injuries to Muscles, Bones, Joints Heat & Cold Emergencies Concussions Burns Poisoning/Alcohol Poisoning Fire safety Personal Safety
Barriers to act… Feelings and questions a person may have that could prevent them from responding to an emergency Think-pair-share… – What are 3 of the biggest barriers to act?
Barriers to act Panic/overwhelmed Fear of doing something wrong Assuming someone else will take action Fear of catching a disease Fear of being sued Unsure of what to do or what type of injury it is
Legal Considerations Always ask permission Implied Consent involves an unresponsive victim in a life threating condition. It is assumed or “implied” that an unresponsive victim would consent to lifesaving help. IMPORTANT: Only perform first aid for what you have been trained!
Good Samaritan Law Protect citizens who act in a way that is “reasonable and prudent” when giving care – Move the person only if their life is in danger – Ask a conscious person for permission (consent before care) – Call 911 – Continue to give care until a more trained person arrives – Document what you did
Check-Call-Care CHECK First assess the scene by evaluating: – Is the scene safe? – What happened? – How many injured people are there? – Are there bystanders who can help? When providing care, begin by checking the person for life-threatening conditions.
CALL If you encounter one of the following types of emergencies, call 9-1-1: – Unconsciousness – No signs of life – Trouble breathing – Persistent chest pain or pressure When in doubt, always call 9-1-1.
Call When calling 9-1-1, provide the following information to the dispatcher: Your name and the number you are calling from – A description of what happened – Your exact location – The number of injured people – The condition of the person(s) – What help is being given
Care CARE for the victim – Make sure to get Consent Reassure the person Monitor the person's ABC’s Help the person rest in the most comfortable position Prevent the person from getting either chilled or overheated – http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcontent/PHS S/PHSS/Flanker/flanker_p6/lesson1/consent.html http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcontent/PHS S/PHSS/Flanker/flanker_p6/lesson1/consent.html
Shock Shock: Circulatory system failure when insufficient amounts of oxygenated blood are provided to every body part. Signs: – Altered mental state – Pale, cold, and clammy skin, lips and nail beds – Nausea and vomiting – Rapid breathing and pulse – Can be unresponsive
Shock…What to do? Lay the victim on his/her back Raise legs 8-12” to allow blood to drain from legs back to the heart Keep the victim warm. Cover with blankets/coats
Video Segments & Practice What would you do? Checking an unconscious adult and child Shock Assisting with Epi Pen (if time)
Do Now: Discuss with the person next to you: 1)What are the 3 C’s of First Aid and describe what you do for each of them? 2)What are two things you do for someone in shock? Video: Shock, unconscious adult
Scenario #1 You walk into the library and see that a person is non-responsive at a table….what do you do?
Scenario #2 You and your friend were just in a car accident. Luckily, everyone is ok and you are waiting for the police to arrive, but your friend starts acting odd…their breathing is fast, their hands are cold and their answers to your questions don’t make sense. What do you do?
Day 2: Cardiac Emergencies Video: The Heart’s Electrical System
Cardiac Arrest Heart attacks – Usually occur when one of the coronary arteries is blocked by obstruction or spasm Signs & Symptoms – Pressure in chest (squeezing, fullness, can go away and come back) – Pain spreads to shoulders/arms – Lightheadedness, fainting, sweating, nausea, shortness of breath.
Cardiac Chain of Survival Early Recognition & Access Early CPR Early Defibrillation (AED) Early Advanced Medical Care http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcontent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/fl anker_p6/lesson2/cardiac_chain_of_survival_video.html
Heart Attack –Make victim comfortable –Loosen tight clothing –Check for medication –Keep victim still –Don’t give stimulants
Unresponsive Victim Check ABC’s Start CPR/AED Continue CPR until help arrives. Each minute CPR/AED is delayed the rate of survival decreases by 10% http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcontent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/flan ker_p6/lesson2/cpr_when_to_stop.html http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcontent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/flan ker_p6/lesson2/cpr_when_to_stop.html
AED Steps Turn on the AED Wipe the chest dry Attach pads to bare chest Plug in the connector, if necessary Make sure no one, including you, is touching the person. Tell everyone to "STAND CLEAR!" Push the analyze button if necessary, let the AED analyze heart rhythm
If AED advises you to shock the person: Make sure no one, including you, is touching the person. Tell everyone to "STAND CLEAR!" Push the "shock" button, if necessary.
Video Segments & Practice Hands only CPR Recognizing and Caring for Cardiac Emergencies Putting it all together: CPR Adult
Wrap Up Questions What are the signs of a heart attack When do you stop CPR? What are the steps in the Cardiac Chain of Survival?
Emergency Simulation Use your ipad to go through simulation www.heartrescuenow.com
Do Now Decide who is Partner 1 and Partner 2 Scenario 1: Partner 1 is the “Prompter” and will read through the scenario. giviGive Partner 2, the “Responder,” a chance to answer before reading the written response Scenario 2: Switch roles.
What to do for Breathing Emergencies Check if the person is conscious If the victim is responsive: – Ask them what injuries/difficulties they are experiencing – Ask for permission to help and provide first aid If the victim is not responsive – Check for obvious signs of injury (from head to toe) – ABC’s – Provide first aid/CPR
ABC’s A = Airway (Open? Tilt chin) B = Breathing (Look, listen and feel) C = Circulation (signs of pulse/heartbeat)
Breathing Emergencies Rescue Breathing-certified only HANDS only CPR http://heart.org/HEARTORG/CPRAndECC/Hands OnlyCPR/DemosandVideos/Demos-and- Videos_UCM_440561_Article.jsp – Call 911 – Push hard and fast in the center of the chest until help arrives. – Push at a rate of 100 beats per minute
Help a Choking Adult (Conscious) Ask “Are you choking?” and ask to help. 5 back blows – One arm diagonal across chest, lean person over 5 abdominal thrusts – Use two fingers to find navel, place fist directly above navel, quick upward thrusts. Give thrusts until the object is forced out. http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcontent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/flanker _p6/lesson4/video_conscious_choking_adult.html Obese person, pregnant woman, child, self?
What if the person becomes unconscious? Gently lower them to the ground Hands only CPR If you see and object you can sweep it out with your finger. STOP AND PRACTICE
Video segment & Practice Breathing Emergencies – Conscious choking Adult and child – Unconscious choking Adult and child
Abrasion The top layer of skin is removed with little or no blood loss A scrape
Laceration A cut skin with jagged, irregular edges caused by forceful tearing away of skin tissue
Incision Smooth edges, resembles a surgical or paper cut
Puncture Deep, narrow wound in skin and underlying organs Stab from a nail or knife
Avulsion Flap of skin is torn loose and is either hanging from the body or completely removed
Amputation Cutting or tearing off of a body part such as a finger, toe, hand, foot, arm or leg Treat victim for shock Recover the amputated body part and put it on a bed ice if possible. (Cold but not frozen)
Treating Bleeding Emergencies Check-Call-Care Use gloves Cover wound with sterile dressing or clean cloth Apply pressure Use roller bandage (start from end farthest from the heart) Overlap several times to cover the dressing, tape or tie off
Keep pressure on the wound Do not remove bandages, do not attempt to clean severely bleeding wound First priority is to control the bleeding. If there is an object embedded do not remove the object.
Internal Bleeding Signs: -Bruises or contusions of the skin -Painful, tender, rigid -Vomiting or coughing up blood Treatment: Same as shock but you ice area you think may be bleeding
First Degree Burns Superficial; Only the skin’s outer layer (epidermis) is damaged Symptoms: Redness, mild swelling, tenderness and pain. What to do: Immerse in cold water 10-45 minutes or use cold, wet cloths Cold stops burn progression Can heal without scarring
Second degree burns First and second layer of skin (Epidermis and dermis) are damaged Symptoms: Blisters, swelling, leaking of fluids, severe pain What to do: – Immerse in cold water/wet pack – Do not break blisters – Possibly seek medical attention
Third degree burns Severe burns that penetrate all the skin layers into the underlying fat and muscle Symptoms: Burned area appears gray/white, cherry red or black, no initial pain because nerve endings are destroyed What to do: – Apply sterile, non-stick dressings – Check ABC’s and treat for shock – Get medical help – Not necessary to apply cold, don’t apply ointment
Burn Activity Using your ipad, go to my webpage and click on the burn activity, see how well you do on the questions http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcont ent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/flanker_p6/lesson7/a ctivity_burn_care_fact_fiction.html http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcont ent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/flanker_p6/lesson7/a ctivity_burn_care_fact_fiction.html
Injuries to Muscles, Bones, Joints Signals: – Cannot use body part – Snap, pop or grating of bones – Loss of feeling – Bone fragments, swelling and deformity – Incident caused severe injury
RICE R = Rest – Do not move or straighten injured area I = Immobilize – Stabilize injured part in the position it was found, minimize movement C = Cold – Apply icepack (thin barrier) for 20 minutes E = Elevate – Do not elevate if it causes more pain
Fractures Two main types: – Closed (simple) Skin is not broken, no visible wound near the fracture site – Open Skin over fracture has been damaged or broken Bone may be protruding through the skin
Treatment of a Fracture http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcont ent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/flanker_p6/lesson8/vi deo_injuries_to_muscles_bones_joints.html http://con1.classes.redcross.org/learningcont ent/PHSS/PHSS/Flanker/flanker_p6/lesson8/vi deo_injuries_to_muscles_bones_joints.html
Heat Cramps Painful muscle spasms most often in the calves, arms, stomach and back Signs include muscle cramps, sweating and headache What to do? – Rest and cool off – Drink something that contains sugar and electrolytes
Cold Related Emergencies Frostbite: Freezing of a body part exposed to the cold – Numbness or lack of feeling Skin appears waxy, cold to the touch or is discolored (flushed, black, white, yellow or blue). Blisters may form in more serious cases; affected part may turn black and show signs of deep tissue damage.
Confusion that lasts from moments to several minutes Headache Repeated questioning about what happened Temporary memory loss, especially for periods immediately before and after the injury Brief loss of consciousness Nausea and vomiting Speech problems that include the person being unable to answer questions or obey simple commands Blurred vision or sensitivity to light Signs of a Concussion
Grade 1 concussion: symptoms last for less than 15 minutes, no loss of consciousness. Grade 2 concussion: No loss of consciousness but symptoms last longer than 15 minutes. Grade 3 concussion: Person loses consciousness, sometimes just for a few seconds.
Poison Emergencies Poison becomes a life threatening emergency when it can cause breathing to stop. What examples can you think of where this could happen??
Alcohol Poison PA Law (f) Exception for person seeking medical attention for another.--A person shall be immune from prosecution for consumption or possession under subsection (a) if he can establish the following: (1) The only way law enforcement officers became aware of the person's violation of subsection (a) is because the person placed a 911 call, or a call to campus safety, police or emergency services, in good faith, based on a reasonable belief and reported that another person was in need of immediate medical attention to prevent death or serious injury. (2) The person reasonably believed he was the first person to make a 911 call or a call to campus safety, police or emergency services, and report that a person needed immediate medical attention to prevent death or serious injury. (3) The person provided his own name to the 911 operator or equivalent campus safety, police or emergency officer. (4) The person remained with the person needing medical assistance until emergency health care providers arrived and the need for his presence had ended. http://www.legis.state.pa.us/WU01/LI/LI/CT/HTM/18/00.063.008.000..HTM
First Aid for Alcohol Poison Call 911 if any of the following symptoms are present : Mental confusion or unconsciousness Repeated vomiting Seizures Slow or irregular breathing Low body temperature Pale, clammy, or bluish skin WHAT SHOULD YOU DO IF YOU ARE NOT SURE???
First Aid for Alcohol Poison How to help: Put the person in the recovery position. Make sure they're breathing and that their mouth is empty. Clear any vomit away from their mouth. If they stop breathing, start CPR Loosen any tight clothing that might restrict their breathing. Keep them warm - use blankets or a coat (but not too warm).
Don’t ignore someone who is unconscious or vomiting. Don’t give someone fluids, even water, if you think they're in shock or unconscious. Don’t leave someone alone, especially if they are unconscious. Alcohol poisoning video – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHVd_ydoG8s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHVd_ydoG8s
Poison Emergencies Poison Control Phone Number 1-800-222-1222 Why is this number better than 911 for poison emergencies?
Go to: http://www.poison.org/actFast/1800.asp http://www.poison.org/actFast/1800.asp 1)Click on “Poisoning Info” Select 5 types of poisons to read about and write a one paragraph summary or reaction 2) Click on “Poisoning Stats” What stat surprised you the most & why? (1-2 sentences)
Key Points to Remember Medical emergencies can happen anytime. Act quickly, calmly, and correctly. Consider being certified in first aid and CPR.
First Aid Basic Rules Protect yourself Keep calm Get help-911 Do not move the victim Reassure the victim Determine what to do (breathing, bleeding) Do it with confidence
Refreshers http://www.redcrossrefresher.com/q/first-aid- cpr-and-aed/first-aid/challenge/ http://www.redcrossrefresher.com/q/first-aid- cpr-and-aed/first-aid/challenge/ Also click on breathing and cardiac emergencies
First Aid Poster Presentation Day 8 & 9 2 class days – Day 1: work on your poster – Day 2: ½ period work on poster, ½ period present Each group will choose a different emergency. 3-5 minute presentation on your emergency. Make it colorful, at least one picture, neat and eye catching, easy to read and include all important information.
Fire Safety OCTOBER IS FIRE PREVENTION MONTH https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YciDm_cwPighttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YciDm_cwPig The most valuable piece of home fire prevention equipment is? School /Workplace vs Home safety EDITH Exit Drill in the Home HW
Vehicle Safety Pay attention to -Road conditions -Other drivers -Your physical condition -Your emotional condition What laws are in place to help keep us safe?
Preventing Road Rage Avoid blocking right hand turn lane Assume other drivers mistakes are not personal Be polite and courteous even when the other person is not Avoid unnecessary us of high beam lights Avoid all conflict if possible, if another driver challenges you-take a deep breath and get out of the way.
Preventing Road Rage Why do you think people are more likely to feel and express intense anger in their cars? How can road rage be contagious? What can you do as a driver or passenger to reduce risks of road rage?
NO CELL PHONE USE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dht- Vy25jPs&safe=active https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dht- Vy25jPs&safe=active Homework: Write a letter to your parents promising that you won’t text and drive. Include two facts you learned from class that impacted you.
Homework Write a letter to your parents promising that you won’t text and drive. Include two facts you learned from class that impacted you.
Recreational and Outdoor Safety Know your abilities and limitations Warm up and Cool down Learn and practice safety rules specific to activity – water skiing, hiking, swimming Complete worksheet about specific safety p 748-753
Safety Plans List the Safety plans Penncrest High School has in place. Your thoughts on these plans?
Safety Plans Fire Drill Lock Down Drill Evacuation Plan “Drug Dog” Locked Doors Your role when you see or hear something suspicious????????
Personal Safety Preventative Behaviors to reduce risk of violence 1.Give up personal property if that’s what attacker wants 2.Avoid areas known to have high incidence of crime 3.Avoid walking alone at night. 4.Have car keys ready-check back seat 5.Park in well lit area 6.Don’t put wallet/purse in easy to grab area 7.Stay alert to what is going on around you. 8.Report suspicious license numbers to police 9.Always make sure friend is in their house before you leave when giving ride. 10.Walk quickly, act assertively 11.Consider a self-defense class.