Presentation on theme: "Understanding Drugs and Medicines"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding Drugs and Medicines Chapter 9Understanding Drugs and Medicines
2DrugsDrug: any substance that causes a change in a person’s physical or psychological state Some drugs are medicines… a drug that is used to cure, prevent, or treat illness or discomfort
3What is the FDA?FDA – Food and Drug Administration: it is a government agency created to control the safety of food, drugs, and cosmentics
4Path To AddictionDrug Use Tolerance Dependence Addiction
5Path To AddictionDrug Use – activates the brain reward system (pleasure system)Tolerance – develops after repeated drug used; user finds that it takes more of a drug to feel the same effectDependence – user becomes uncomfortable and has withdrawals when trying to stopPhysical Dependence – body relies on a given drug to function normallyPsychological Dependence – emotionally or mentally needing a drug to function normallyAddiction – drug user has lost control of his or her drug-taking habit; use because they feel they have to, not because they want to
6WithdrawalUncomfortable physical and psychological symptoms produced when a physically dependent drug user stops using drugs
7QUICK REVIEW 1.) What is tolerance? 2.) What is the difference between physical dependence and psychological dependence?3.) What are the stages in the path to addiction?
8QUICK REVIEW 1.) What is tolerance? takes more of the same drug to get the same effects 2.) What is the difference between physical dependence and psychological dependence?Physical-body relies on drug to function normallyPsychological-emotionally/mentally needing a drug to function normally 3.) What are the stages in the path to addiction?Drug Use Tolerance Dependence AddictionFriedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Print.
10AlcoholAlcohol is a drug found in beer, wine, and liquor that causes intoxication Alcohol is a drug because it changes a persons physical, mental, and emotional state (intoxication).
11Many people think that beer is safer than liquor because it not as strong. This is NOT true. One beer is the same amount of alcohol as one glass of wine or one shot of vodka.
12Myth vs. RealityMyth: Drinking will make me look more mature. Reality: Stumbling around and acting silly will not make you look more mature. Myth: If alcohol was that dangerous , it would be illegal for adults. Reality: Alcohol is dangerous for both adults and teens. Myth: “I’ve had a few beers. I can drink some coffee before I drive, and I’ll be fine.” Reality: Coffee can make you feel awake, but it can’t make you sober. Only time can do that. Myth: Parties make me nervous so I need alcohol to loosen up. Reality: When people loosen up with alcohol, they often say and do things they will later regret.
13FACTSIn the United States, alcohol is illegal for anyone under the age of 21.Zero Tolerance: it is illegal for people under the age of 21 to drive with any amount of alcohol in their systemsBlood Alcohol Content (B.A.C.)-amount of alcohol in a person’s blood expressed as a percentage.4 to .5 can result in Death.08 is the legal limit for driving under the influence.02 can start to affect a persons ability to drive
14What is the number one cause of death among teens? a. Diseases b. Suicidec. Homicided. Motor vehicle accidents
15Organizations that are fighting against driving while intoxicated: ____________________________Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD) – school based organization
16Short-Term Effects Short term effects depend on several factors… Amount of alcohol consumedAmount of food in person’s stomachGenetic factorsMedications a person may be takingGender & Size**When alcohol is consumed, it is quickly absorbed into the blood stream.
17Short-Term EffectsIrritates mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach (nausea and vomiting)Makes the heart and liver work harder.Reduced reaction timeMakes body lose heatCauses dehydration (breaking down alcohol requires water)Loss of judgment and self-controlMemory Loss/BlackoutDeath
18Long-Term EffectsPermanent damage to the body – enlarged heart, high blood pressure, and irregular heartbeatLiver – cirrhosis (disease that replaces healthy liver tissue with scar tissue) and hepatitisBrain damage – shrunken brain and dead brain cells
19WHAT IS ALCOHOLISM??? _Alcohol Abuse: drinking too much alcohol, drinking it too often, or drinking it at inappropriate timesAlcoholism: disease that causes a person to lose control of his or her drinking behaviorBinge Drinking: Defined as having 5 or more drinks in one sitting.
20Alcoholism Develops in STAGES (very similar to addiction): Problem Drinking – experimentation and social drinkingTolerance – more alcohol needed to get the same effectsDependence – body needs alcohol to function normallyAlcoholism – addicted to alcohol
21Risk Factors for Alcoholism Age – most important risk factorTeens who start drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to become alcoholics than people who wait until they are 21.Teens developing brains are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol.Social Environment – peer pressure, persuasive advertising, and desire to fit in (controllable)Genetics – alcoholism tends to run in families
22Warning Signs of Alcoholism Professional and personal relationship problemsDrinking to deal with emotions (depressed)Changing friends, habits, and interestsDrinking alone and to get drunkDefensive about drinking
23Alcoholism and the Family Alcoholism and Society Guilty feelings, violence, unpredictable behavior, neglect, protecting the alcoholic, and ignoring one’s own needs to take care of the addictAlcoholism and SocietyIncreased violence, crimes, injuries, loss of productivity due to alcohol-related illness (get sick a lot more often)
24Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (F.A.S.) - a set of physical and mental defects that affect a fetus that has been exposed to alcohol because of the mother’s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Some babies have physical abnormalities and mental retardation. (F.A.S. is the single more preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States.)You don’t want to see pictures.
25Inpatient, outpatient, counseling, and support groups TREATMENTA variety of options:Inpatient, outpatient, counseling, and support groupsAN ONGOING PROCESSAlcoholics Anonymous (AA) – most widely used program; 12 stepsAl-Anon – help family members talk about and share advice about living with an alcoholicAlateen – designed to help teenagers cope with living with an alcoholic**Local chapters of these organizations are in nearly every community. Look online or in phonebook to find information about local chapters
26QUICK REVIEW 1. ) Alcohol is considered a drug because… 2 QUICK REVIEW 1.) Alcohol is considered a drug because… 2.) What is the law that makes it illegal for anyone under 21 to drive with any alcohol in his/her system? 3.) Which of the following is a controllable risk factor for alcoholism?genes, environment, or age
27QUICK REVIEW 1.) Alcohol is considered a drug because… it causes a change in a person’s physical and emotional state 2.) What is the law that makes it illegal for anyone under 21 to drive with any alcohol in his/her system?zero tolerance 3.) Which of the following is a controllable risk factor for alcoholism?environmentFriedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Print.
29QUICK REVIEW 1.) What are some short-term effects of alcohol? 2.) What are the stages of alcoholism?
30QUICK REVIEW 1.) What are some short-term effects of alcohol? nausea, vomiting, heart/liver work harder, reduced reaction time, lost body heat, dehydration, loss of judgment/self-control, memory loss/blackout, death2.) What are the stages of alcoholism?problem drinking tolerance dependence alcoholism
31TobaccoTypes of tobacco products: 1. Cigarettes (including herbal like cloves, bidis, and kreteks) 2.Chewing Tobacco 3. Snuff (dip) 4. Pipe tobacco 5. Cigars All 5 products contain the highly addictive drug NICOTINE. There is NO safe form of tobacco.
32FACTSThe most avoidable cause of death in the United States is considered to be TOBACCO USE. A carcinogen is a chemical agent that is known to cause cancer. There are at least 40 carcinogens in cigarettes smoke. Cigarette smoke also contains carbon monoxide; a gas that blocks oxygen from getting into the bloodstream. Tar is a sticky black substance in tobacco that coats the inside of airways.
33Short-Term Effects of Tobacco Increase heart rate and blood pressureStimulate brain reward systemIncrease breathing rateStimulate vomit reflexIncrease blood sugar levelsCauses bad breathe and clothes to stink**Know these for the test
34Long-Term Effects of Tobacco AddictionBronchitisCigarette smoke paralyzes and kills cilia.Emphysema- respiratory disease in which air can not move in and out of lungsChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysemaLung Cancer- kills more people than any other form of cancerGum disease, tooth decay, stained teethHeart attacksElastic/wrinkled skin
35Effects of Smoke on Nonsmokers Sidestream smoke – smoke that escapes from the tip of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe; can be as much as 50% of the smoke from a cigaretteSecondhand smoke – combination of exhaled mainstream smoke (smoke inhaled by the smoker) and sidestream smoke; inhaled by anyone near the smoker
36Tobacco and Pregnancy Risks of smoking while pregnant: Baby’s growth rate slows resulting in low birth weightMiscarriage or Premature birthIncreases babies risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)Increased risk that the person and their baby will develop respiratory illnessesDevelopmental difficulties
37WHY do people use tobacco??? Family and friendsMisconceptions about dangers of tobaccoCuriosityRebellionAdvertisingDirected at teens by using cartoon animals and attractive people and making it look cool and fun
38REFUSING TobaccoIt is NOT always easy and it may be very difficult to resist under pressure.Be honest – direct, but do not attack or put down the personGive a ReasonSuggest an alternative
39QUICK REVIEW 1.) What blocks the blood’s ability to carry oxygen? 2.) What are the other names for herbal cigarettes?
40QUICK REVIEW 1.) What blocks the blood’s ability to carry oxygen? carbon monoxide2.) What are the other names for herbal cigarettes?cloves, bidis, and kreteksFriedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Print.
42QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Using tobacco is a good method for coping and dealing with stress.2.) When you stop using tobacco, how long will it take for your senses of smell and taste to return?
43QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Using tobacco is a good method for coping and dealing with stress.FALSE2.) When you stop using tobacco, how long will it take for your senses of smell and taste to return?Within a few days
44Using illegal drugs is dangerous because… they can have dangerous and permanent effects on the body. they are a major factor in suicides, motor vehicle accidents, and crimes. you can become addicted to almost all illegal drugs. when drug use involves sharing needles, there is the risk of catching infectious diseases. overdose can result. they can result in risky sexual behavior leading to unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.
45WHY do people begin using drugs? ExperimentEscape from depression or boredomEnjoyment of risk-taking behaviorsBelief that drugs solve personal, social, or medical problemsPeer pressureGlamorization of drug use by the media**Teens are at a higher risk of using illegal drugs because of the pressures and changes associated with adolescence. They are also more likely to become addicted.
46COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS Effects of the Drug Health Consequences Other InformationMarijuana(smoked or mixed in with food and eaten)Relaxation, feelings of well- being, distortion of time and distance, loss of short- term memory, loss of balance and coordination, increased appetiteFrequent respiratory infection, impaired learning and memory, panic attack; long-term use can result in many of the same effects as tobaccoActive ingredient: THCComes from Cannabis sativa plantHashish(smoked)Same as marijuana but strongerSame as marijuanaActive Ingredient:THCAnabolic Steroids(swallowed or injected)No intoxication effectsIncreased aggression, shrinking of testes, infertility, growth of breasts in men, growth of facial hair and deepening of voice in women, liver cancer, heart damage/attackTaken for the effects on the body, not mind – to build muscles
47COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS CONTINUED Effects of the DrugHealth ConsequencesOther InformationStimulants (temporarily increase energy and alertness)Cocaine, methamphetamines (meth), speed, etc.(snorted, injected, smoked, or swallowed)Loss of appetite, euphoria, hyperactivity, restlessness, anxiety, increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, increased breathing rateNervousness, irritability, panic, aggressive behavior, kidney and liver damage, heart failure, deathThe effects of crack cocaine (crystallized form that is smoked) are more intense than powdered cocaine, but do not last as long.Depressants (cause relaxation and sleepiness)Rohypnol, dextromethorphan(DXM)(swallowed)Euphoria, reduced anxiety, loss of inhibitions, drowsinessDangerously slow breathing, loss of coordination, slurred speech, confusion, slowed heart rate, loss of consciousness, loss of memory, coma, deathRohypnol is the most frequently used date-rape drug.Dextromethorphan can make the user not be able to move at all.Opiates (from the poppy plant that are used as pain relievers, anesthetics, and sedatives)Heroin, Oxycotton(smoked, injected, swallowed, or snorted)Euphoria, feelings of well-being, relaxation, drowsiness, pain reliefNausea/vomiting, constipation, confusion, loss of consciousness, dangerously slow breathing, coma, deathHeroin is the most commonly used illegal opiate and is HIGHLY ADDICTIVE.Hallucinogens (distort perceptions and cause a person to see and hear things that are not real)LSD, mushrooms(swallowed or smoked)Sensory illusions, distortions of reality, dizziness, weakness, enhanced emotions, feelings of being outside the bodyPanic, self-injury, chronic mental disorders, recurring distortion of perceptions after the drug has worn off (flashbacks)
48Club (Designer) Drugs Effects of the Drug Health Consequences Other InformationEcstasy(swallowed or snorted)Increased awareness of senses, mild hallucinations, increased energy, loss of judgmentImpaired learning and memory, hyperthermia (overheating), rapid/irregular heartbeat, deathWhen taken with GHB, they do not cancel out each other or make the effects of the drugs last longer. It increases the risk of seizure and decreases body’s ability to control temperature.GHBRelaxation, nausea, loss of inhibitions, euphoriaDangerously slow breathing, seizures, comaA date-rape drugPCP(injected, snorted, or smoked)Confusing, distortions of reality, numbnessLoss of memory, loss of muscle control, dangerously slow breathingSuicide and accidental suicide are serious risks
49Drug Abuse TreatmentPatients should be monitored for continued drug use.Mental illness should be treated at the same time as addiction.Medications can be an important part of treatment.Treatment does not need to be voluntary.Treatment should offer multiple services, including, medical services, family counseling, job training, and legal services.The longer the abuser stays in treatment, the more effective it is.
50Saying “No” to DrugsSTAY AWAY FROM PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS AND PLACES WHERE DRUGS WILL BE USED.1.) Say no firmly.2.) Buy yourself time (i.e. go to the bathroom and think about how you can get out of the situation)3.) Give good reasons why you choose not to do drugs.4.) State the consequences that could result.5.) Suggest an alternate activity.6.) Walk away.
51QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Extreme sleepiness results from repeated use of methamphetamine.2.)What changes in men can anabolic steroids cause?
52QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Extreme sleepiness results from repeated use of methamphetamine.FALSE – methamphetamine is a stimulant and can result in permanent kidney or liver damage2.) What changes in men can anabolic steroids cause?shrinking of testes, growth of breasts, baldness, infertility, acneFriedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Print.