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Chapter 9 Understanding Drugs and Medicines. Drugs Drug: any substance that causes a change in a person’s physical or psychological state Some drugs are.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Understanding Drugs and Medicines. Drugs Drug: any substance that causes a change in a person’s physical or psychological state Some drugs are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Understanding Drugs and Medicines

2 Drugs Drug: any substance that causes a change in a person’s physical or psychological state Some drugs are medicines… a drug that is used to cure, prevent, or treat illness or discomfort

3 What is the FDA? FDA – Food and Drug Administration: it is a government agency created to control the safety of food, drugs, and cosmentics

4 Path To Addiction Drug Use Tolerance Dependence Addiction

5 Path To Addiction Drug Use – activates the brain reward system (pleasure system) Tolerance – develops after repeated drug used; user finds that it takes more of a drug to feel the same effect Dependence – user becomes uncomfortable and has withdrawals when trying to stop Physical Dependence – body relies on a given drug to function normally Psychological Dependence – emotionally or mentally needing a drug to function normally Addiction – drug user has lost control of his or her drug-taking habit; use because they feel they have to, not because they want to

6 Withdrawal Uncomfortable physical and psychological symptoms produced when a physically dependent drug user stops using drugs

7 QUICK REVIEW 1.) What is tolerance? 2.) What is the difference between physical dependence and psychological dependence? 3.) What are the stages in the path to addiction?

8 QUICK REVIEW 1.) What is tolerance? takes more of the same drug to get the same effects 2.) What is the difference between physical dependence and psychological dependence? Physical-body relies on drug to function normally Psychological-emotionally/mentally needing a drug to function normally 3.) What are the stages in the path to addiction? Drug Use Tolerance Dependence Addiction Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.

9 Chapter 10 Alcohol

10 Alcohol is a drug found in beer, wine, and liquor that causes intoxication Alcohol is a drug because it changes a persons physical, mental, and emotional state (intoxication).

11 Many people think that beer is safer than liquor because it not as strong. This is NOT true. One beer is the same amount of alcohol as one glass of wine or one shot of vodka.

12 Myth vs. Reality Myth: Drinking will make me look more mature. Reality: Stumbling around and acting silly will not make you look more mature. Myth: If alcohol was that dangerous, it would be illegal for adults. Reality: Alcohol is dangerous for both adults and teens. Myth: “I’ve had a few beers. I can drink some coffee before I drive, and I’ll be fine.” Reality: Coffee can make you feel awake, but it can’t make you sober. Only time can do that. Myth: Parties make me nervous so I need alcohol to loosen up. Reality: When people loosen up with alcohol, they often say and do things they will later regret.

13 FACTS In the United States, alcohol is illegal for anyone under the age of 21. Zero Tolerance: it is illegal for people under the age of 21 to drive with any amount of alcohol in their systems Blood Alcohol Content (B.A.C.) -amount of alcohol in a person’s blood expressed as a percentage.4 to.5 can result in Death.08 is the legal limit for driving under the influence.02 can start to affect a persons ability to drive

14 What is the number one cause of death among teens? a. Diseases b. Suicide c. Homicide d. Motor vehicle accidents

15 Organizations that are fighting against driving while intoxicated: ____________________________ Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD) – school based organization

16 Short-Term Effects Short term effects depend on several factors… 1.Amount of alcohol consumed 2.Amount of food in person’s stomach 3.Genetic factors 4.Medications a person may be taking 5.Gender & Size **When alcohol is consumed, it is quickly absorbed into the blood stream.

17 Short-Term Effects 1.Irritates mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach (nausea and vomiting) 2.Makes the heart and liver work harder. 3.Reduced reaction time 4.Makes body lose heat 5.Causes dehydration (breaking down alcohol requires water) 6.Loss of judgment and self-control 7.Memory Loss/Blackout 8.Death

18 Long-Term Effects 1.Permanent damage to the body – enlarged heart, high blood pressure, and irregular heartbeat 2.Liver – cirrhosis (disease that replaces healthy liver tissue with scar tissue) and hepatitis 3.Brain damage – shrunken brain and dead brain cells

19 WHAT IS ALCOHOLISM??? _ Alcohol Abuse: drinking too much alcohol, drinking it too often, or drinking it at inappropriate times Alcoholism: disease that causes a person to lose control of his or her drinking behavior Binge Drinking: Defined as having 5 or more drinks in one sitting.

20 Alcoholism Develops in STAGES (very similar to addiction): 1.Problem Drinking – experimentation and social drinking 2.Tolerance – more alcohol needed to get the same effects 3.Dependence – body needs alcohol to function normally 4.Alcoholism – addicted to alcohol

21 Risk Factors for Alcoholism Age – most important risk factor 1.Teens who start drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to become alcoholics than people who wait until they are 21. 2.Teens developing brains are vulnerable to the effects of alcohol. Social Environment – peer pressure, persuasive advertising, and desire to fit in (controllable) Genetics – alcoholism tends to run in families

22 Warning Signs of Alcoholism 1.Professional and personal relationship problems 2.Drinking to deal with emotions (depressed) 3.Changing friends, habits, and interests 4.Drinking alone and to get drunk 5.Defensive about drinking

23 Alcoholism and the Family Guilty feelings, violence, unpredictable behavior, neglect, protecting the alcoholic, and ignoring one’s own needs to take care of the addict Alcoholism and Society Increased violence, crimes, injuries, loss of productivity due to alcohol-related illness (get sick a lot more often)

24 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (F.A.S.) - a set of physical and mental defects that affect a fetus that has been exposed to alcohol because of the mother’s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Some babies have physical abnormalities and mental retardation. (F.A.S. is the single more preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States.) You don’t want to see pictures.

25 TREATMENT A variety of options: Inpatient, outpatient, counseling, and support groups AN ONGOING PROCESS Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) – most widely used program; 12 steps Al-Anon – help family members talk about and share advice about living with an alcoholic Alateen – designed to help teenagers cope with living with an alcoholic **Local chapters of these organizations are in nearly every community. Look online or in phonebook to find information about local chapters

26 QUICK REVIEW 1.) Alcohol is considered a drug because… 2.) What is the law that makes it illegal for anyone under 21 to drive with any alcohol in his/her system? 3.) Which of the following is a controllable risk factor for alcoholism? genes, environment, or age

27 QUICK REVIEW 1.) Alcohol is considered a drug because… it causes a change in a person’s physical and emotional state 2.) What is the law that makes it illegal for anyone under 21 to drive with any alcohol in his/her system? zero tolerance 3.) Which of the following is a controllable risk factor for alcoholism? environment Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.

28 Chapter 11 Tobacco

29 QUICK REVIEW 1.) What are some short-term effects of alcohol? 2.) What are the stages of alcoholism?

30 QUICK REVIEW 1.) What are some short-term effects of alcohol? nausea, vomiting, heart/liver work harder, reduced reaction time, lost body heat, dehydration, loss of judgment/self-control, memory loss/blackout, death 2.) What are the stages of alcoholism? problem drinking tolerance dependence alcoholism

31 Tobacco Types of tobacco products: 1. Cigarettes (including herbal like cloves, bidis, and kreteks) 2.Chewing Tobacco 3. Snuff (dip) 4. Pipe tobacco 5. Cigars All 5 products contain the highly addictive drug NICOTINE. There is NO safe form of tobacco.

32 FACTS The most avoidable cause of death in the United States is considered to be TOBACCO USE. A carcinogen is a chemical agent that is known to cause cancer. There are at least 40 carcinogens in cigarettes smoke. Cigarette smoke also contains carbon monoxide; a gas that blocks oxygen from getting into the bloodstream. Tar is a sticky black substance in tobacco that coats the inside of airways.

33 Short-Term Effects of Tobacco Increase heart rate and blood pressure Stimulate brain reward system Increase breathing rate Stimulate vomit reflex Increase blood sugar levels Causes bad breathe and clothes to stink **Know these for the test

34 Long-Term Effects of Tobacco Addiction Bronchitis – Cigarette smoke paralyzes and kills cilia. Emphysema- respiratory disease in which air can not move in and out of lungs – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema Lung Cancer- kills more people than any other form of cancer Gum disease, tooth decay, stained teeth Heart attacks Elastic/wrinkled skin

35 Effects of Smoke on Nonsmokers Sidestream smoke – smoke that escapes from the tip of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe; can be as much as 50% of the smoke from a cigarette Secondhand smoke – combination of exhaled mainstream smoke (smoke inhaled by the smoker) and sidestream smoke; inhaled by anyone near the smoker

36 Tobacco and Pregnancy Risks of smoking while pregnant: Baby’s growth rate slows resulting in low birth weight Miscarriage or Premature birth Increases babies risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Increased risk that the person and their baby will develop respiratory illnesses Developmental difficulties

37 WHY do people use tobacco??? Family and friends Misconceptions about dangers of tobacco Curiosity Rebellion Advertising – Directed at teens by using cartoon animals and attractive people and making it look cool and fun http://kcox411.blogspot.com/

38 REFUSING Tobacco It is NOT always easy and it may be very difficult to resist under pressure. Be honest – direct, but do not attack or put down the person Give a Reason Suggest an alternative

39 QUICK REVIEW 1.) What blocks the blood’s ability to carry oxygen? 2.) What are the other names for herbal cigarettes?

40 QUICK REVIEW 1.) What blocks the blood’s ability to carry oxygen? carbon monoxide 2.) What are the other names for herbal cigarettes? cloves, bidis, and kreteks Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.

41 Chapter 12 Illegal Drugs

42 QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Using tobacco is a good method for coping and dealing with stress. 2.) When you stop using tobacco, how long will it take for your senses of smell and taste to return?

43 QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Using tobacco is a good method for coping and dealing with stress. FALSE 2.) When you stop using tobacco, how long will it take for your senses of smell and taste to return? Within a few days

44 Using illegal drugs is dangerous because… they can have dangerous and permanent effects on the body. they are a major factor in suicides, motor vehicle accidents, and crimes. you can become addicted to almost all illegal drugs. when drug use involves sharing needles, there is the risk of catching infectious diseases. overdose can result. they can result in risky sexual behavior leading to unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases.

45 WHY do people begin using drugs? Experiment Escape from depression or boredom Enjoyment of risk-taking behaviors Belief that drugs solve personal, social, or medical problems Peer pressure Glamorization of drug use by the media **Teens are at a higher risk of using illegal drugs because of the pressures and changes associated with adolescence. They are also more likely to become addicted.

46 Effects of the DrugHealth ConsequencesOther Information Marijuana (smoked or mixed in with food and eaten) Relaxation, feelings of well- being, distortion of time and distance, loss of short- term memory, loss of balance and coordination, increased appetite Frequent respiratory infection, impaired learning and memory, panic attack; long-term use can result in many of the same effects as tobacco Active ingredient: THC Comes from Cannabis sativa plant Hashish (smoked) Same as marijuana but stronger Same as marijuana Active Ingredient: THC Comes from Cannabis sativa plant Anabolic Steroids (swallowed or injected) No intoxication effectsIncreased aggression, shrinking of testes, infertility, growth of breasts in men, growth of facial hair and deepening of voice in women, liver cancer, heart damage/attack Taken for the effects on the body, not mind – to build muscles COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS

47 Effects of the DrugHealth ConsequencesOther Information Stimulants (temporarily increase energy and alertness) Cocaine, methamphetamines (meth), speed, etc. (snorted, injected, smoked, or swallowed) Loss of appetite, euphoria, hyperactivity, restlessness, anxiety, increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, increased breathing rate Nervousness, irritability, panic, aggressive behavior, kidney and liver damage, heart failure, death The effects of crack cocaine (crystallized form that is smoked) are more intense than powdered cocaine, but do not last as long. Depressants (cause relaxation and sleepiness) Rohypnol, dextromethorphan(DXM) (swallowed) Euphoria, reduced anxiety, loss of inhibitions, drowsiness Dangerously slow breathing, loss of coordination, slurred speech, confusion, slowed heart rate, loss of consciousness, loss of memory, coma, death Rohypnol is the most frequently used date-rape drug. Dextromethorphan can make the user not be able to move at all. Opiates (from the poppy plant that are used as pain relievers, anesthetics, and sedatives) Heroin, Oxycotton (smoked, injected, swallowed, or snorted) Euphoria, feelings of well-being, relaxation, drowsiness, pain relief Nausea/vomiting, constipation, confusion, loss of consciousness, dangerously slow breathing, coma, death Heroin is the most commonly used illegal opiate and is HIGHLY ADDICTIVE. Hallucinogens (distort perceptions and cause a person to see and hear things that are not real) LSD, mushrooms (swallowed or smoked) Sensory illusions, distortions of reality, dizziness, weakness, enhanced emotions, feelings of being outside the body Panic, self-injury, chronic mental disorders, recurring distortion of perceptions after the drug has worn off (flashbacks) COMMONLY ABUSED DRUGS CONTINUED

48 Club (Designer) Drugs Effects of the Drug Health Consequences Other Information Ecstasy (swallowed or snorted) Increased awareness of senses, mild hallucinations, increased energy, loss of judgment Impaired learning and memory, hyperthermia (overheating), rapid/irregular heartbeat, death When taken with GHB, they do not cancel out each other or make the effects of the drugs last longer. It increases the risk of seizure and decreases body’s ability to control temperature. GHB (swallowed or snorted) Relaxation, nausea, loss of inhibitions, euphoria Dangerously slow breathing, seizures, coma A date-rape drug PCP (injected, snorted, or smoked) Confusing, distortions of reality, numbness Loss of memory, loss of muscle control, dangerously slow breathing Suicide and accidental suicide are serious risks

49 Drug Abuse Treatment 1.Patients should be monitored for continued drug use. 2.Mental illness should be treated at the same time as addiction. 3.Medications can be an important part of treatment. 4.Treatment does not need to be voluntary. 5.Treatment should offer multiple services, including, medical services, family counseling, job training, and legal services. 6.The longer the abuser stays in treatment, the more effective it is.

50 Saying “No” to Drugs STAY AWAY FROM PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS AND PLACES WHERE DRUGS WILL BE USED. 1.) Say no firmly. 2.) Buy yourself time (i.e. go to the bathroom and think about how you can get out of the situation) 3.) Give good reasons why you choose not to do drugs. 4.) State the consequences that could result. 5.) Suggest an alternate activity. 6.) Walk away.

51 QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Extreme sleepiness results from repeated use of methamphetamine. 2.)What changes in men can anabolic steroids cause?

52 QUICK REVIEW 1.) TRUE OR FALSE Extreme sleepiness results from repeated use of methamphetamine. FALSE – methamphetamine is a stimulant and can result in permanent kidney or liver damage 2.) What changes in men can anabolic steroids cause? shrinking of testes, growth of breasts, baldness, infertility, acne Friedman, David P., Curtis C. Stine, and Shannon Whalen. Lifetime Health. Orlando, [Fla.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2009. Print.


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