2 Objectives By the end of this module, the student will be able to: Explain what a seizure is and the incidence of patients who have seizures.Differentiate between seizures and epilepsy.Discuss the causes of seizure activity.Discuss the types of seizures based on the type of movement presented with each.
3 Objectives (cont.)Discuss the stages of a seizure and apply to the assessment and document of seizure activity.Compare types and activity of childhood seizures with the adult seizure.Discuss the various diagnosis, treatments and medications used to manage seizure disorders.Describe the appropriate nursing diagnosis and interventions for the management of seizures.
4 Seizures in History and FYI 400 AD-The Greek physician Hippocrates writes the first book on epilepsy.Seizures were known as “convulsions or fits”1494-women with seizures were thought to be witchesSome people known to have seizures and epilepsy:SocratesCharles DickensVincent Van GoghAlfred NobelRichard BurtonAgatha ChristieNotice those people with seizures/epilepsy are gifted writers, thinkers, painters.
5 What is a seizure? What is epilepsy? A seizure is the clinical event that result from abnormal nerve cell (neuronal) activity.Excessive bursts of disorganized electrical impulses from neurons in the cerebral cortex.Epilepsy is two or more unprovoked seizures.Thought to be an imbalance of neurotransmitters, or abnormal neuronal, or both.
6 Incidence of seizuresAccording to the Epilepsy Foundation®, more than 2 million people in the United States and about 65 million worldwide suffer from epilepsy.In the United States, about 150,000 new cases are diagnosed each year,About 300,000 people with epilepsy are under the age of 14500,000 are over the age of 65.One in ten people will have a seizure at some point during their life.
7 EpilepsyEpilepsy is a generic term used to define a variety of disorders characterized by recurring seizures.Epilepsy means that a person has an underlying condition that affects the delicate systems which govern how electrical energy behaves in the brain, making it susceptible to recurring seizures.
8 SeizuresA seizure is a brief, temporary disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain.Seizures are a symptom of epilepsy.Having a seizure does not necessarily mean that a person has epilepsy.People can experience different types of seizures.
9 What Causes Epilepsy?In about 70% of people with epilepsy, the cause is not known (idiopathic)In the remaining 30%, the most common causes are:Head trauma- Infection of brain tissueBrain tumor and strokeHeredityLead poisoningPrenatal disturbance of brain development-Most people with epilepsy wonder what caused their disorder; yet in as many as 7 out of 10 people with epilepsy, no specific cause can be found. Among the rest, the cause may be any one of a number of things that can make a difference in the way the brain works.Head trauma can occur for a number of reasons, including automobile accidents, gunshot wounds, sports accidents, or falls or blows. The more severe the injury, the greater the risk of developing epilepsy. Lead and alcohol are examples of poisons that can damage the brain. In fact, each year more than 5,000 people have a seizure caused by alcoholism. A number of serious infections and causes of inflammation can lead to brain injury, including meningitis, viral encephalitis, and lupus erythematosus. The brain of a fetus may not develop properly during pregnancy, or a lack of oxygen during birth may damage delicate electrical systems within the brain. Finally, heredity plays a role. People may inherit varying degrees of susceptibility to seizures. This is assumed to be more likely when no other specific cause of seizures can be identified. In seniors, epilepsy may be due to stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, or other head trauma.Because the cause is unknown or irreversible in so many people with epilepsy, we need to keep in mind that the important thing is how to live well with a seizure disorder. We need to focus on how to best control the seizures and how to cope with the issues that having a seizure disorder creates.2002
10 Medical Causes of Seizures Heart diseaseHeat illness (or heat intolerance)High feverIllicit drugs, such as angel dust (PCP), cocaine, amphetaminesKidney or liver failureLow blood sugarPhenylketonuria (PKU), which can cause seizures in infantsPoisoning
11 Medical Causes of Seizures StrokeToxemia of pregnancy• Uremia related to kidney failure• Very high blood pressure (malignant hypertension)• Venomous bites and stings (see snake bite)• Withdrawal from alcohol after drinking a lot on most days• Withdrawal from certain drugs, including some painkillers and sleeping pills• Withdrawal from benzodiazepines (such as Valium)
12 Seizure CausesSometimes no cause can be identified, called idiopathic seizures.Usually are seen in children and young adults but can occur at any age.There may be a family history of epilepsy or seizures.
13 What happens during a seizure? The kind of seizure a person has depends on where in his brain the abnormal electrical activity starts and where it spreads.The seizure may be classified according to the movement that is experienced.
14 What Happens During a Seizure Generalized seizureInvolve the whole brain and loss of consciousnessAbsence: characterized by brief loss of consciousnessTonic-clonic: characterized by rhythmic jerking of musclesPartial seizureInvolve only part of the brain; may or may not include loss of consciousnessSymptoms relate to the part of the brain affected20072002
15 Types of Generalized1. "Grand Mal" or Generalized tonic-clonic- Unconsciousness, convulsions, muscle rigidity2. Absence-Brief loss of consciousness3. Myoclonic-Sporadic (isolated), jerking movements4. Clonic-Repetitive, jerking movements5. Tonic-Muscle stiffness, rigidity6. Atonic -Loss of muscle tone
16 Generalized Seizures Tonic-Clonic-involves the whole brain at once. More commonly known.The muscles contract simultaneously, becoming very rigid and the person may cry out as breath is forced out of the lungs when the diaphragm contracts.Person loses consciousness and will fall down if standing.Rhythmic jerking of the head, legs, and arms may occur as massive signals from the brain stimulate the muscles to alternately tense and relax.
17 Tonic-ClonicInjuries and accidents may occur, such as tongue biting and urinary incontinence.(please remove the word neurology from the screen after starting this video. )This tonic-clonic seizure shows a good example of the movement and the tonic-clonic movement that disrupts the diaphragm. Notice the sucking and blowing out of air.
18 Generalized Seizures ABSENCE (formerly known as petit-mal) generalized seizure a brief loss of consciousness, which usually lasts no more than a few seconds.The person is essentially “absent.”Frequently overlooked, often being mistaken for daydreaming.Autonomic phenomenaBehavioral phenomenaMotor phenomenaAutonomic phenomena associated with absence seizures may include:pupil dilatationpallorflushingsweatingsalivationpiloerectionurinary incontinence (not common)Neither the autonomic changes nor automatisms allow one to distinguish absence from other seizure typesBehavioral phenomena-Automatisms are the commonest clinical accompaniment, occurring in 44% of 476 typical absence seizures studied by simultaneous video-EEG radiotelemetry in 27 patients.4 Automatisms are semipurposeful behaviors of which the patient is unaware. The patient cannot recall them afterwards.There are two types:-Perseverative, continuation of preictal activities. Complex activities such as dealing cards, playing patty-cake, or handling a toy are generally perseverative. Speech, if it occurs, also is usually perseverative. It may be slowed and dysarthric but may be totally normal and include both expressive and receptive aspects.Simple behaviors, such as rubbing the face or hands, licking the lips, chewing, grimacing, scratching, or fumbling with clothes, tend to behavioral actions that are included in absence seizures.Motor phenomena-Clonic components may be quite subtle. They most frequently consist of eye blinking. Clonic activity may range from nystagmus to rapid jerking of the arms. Changes in tone often include a tonic postural contraction leading to flexion or hypertonic extension. Although a decrease in tone rarely causes a fall, it may lead to nodding of the head or the dropping of objects.
19 Absence SeizuresThese seizures begin and end abruptly and may occur several times a day. Patients are usually not aware that they are having a seizure, except that they may be aware of "losing time."This child was reported to be having 260 episodes a day, confirmed by EEG.
20 Where some seizures originate and the expected movement
21 Partial SeizuresThe symptoms of a partial seizure relate to the normal function of the brain area that is involved. The person may experience involuntary movements or tingling, light flashes, or other symptoms. You may hear these called focal seizures. There are two forms of partial seizures, simple and complex.
22 Simple Partial Seizures Simple partial seizures are generally brief and do not involve loss of consciousness.Simple partial seizures may cause jerking motions or hallucinations, but the person often remains aware of what is happeningAlthough the child is having simple partial, she also looks as if she my be having some complex there at the end. Her eyes have become dysconjugate .
23 Complex PartialA person having this type of seizure will be unaware of his surroundings during the seizure, may wander aimlessly, run, do a series of repetitive movements (automatisms), pick at clothes, chew, mumble and, to a casual onlooker, appear to be drunk.
24 (from vanumu.com)This map outlines seizures and the type of movement seen. Some seizures are also classified by the amount of activity seen on the EEG.
25 Prodromal PhaseSome patients may experience a Prodromal phase which can occur hours or days before the seizure begins.Some symptoms are:Sleep disturbancesLightheadednessFeelings of being uncomfortable
26 Stages and Care Stage 1-Aura is also known as “Pre-ictal” This stage is a beginning. Not every patient has an aura, but it is considered the “warning stage” . Auras are usually visual, auditory or a strange feeling or smell. Some may have tingling or the feeling of déjà vu.Nausea and vomiting are a common aura for some patients who experience seizures“Feeling butterflies” is a common aura.There are as many auras as there are seizures. Each patient has their own descriptions.
27 Nursing Care During an Aura When with a patient who has an aura, you have the opportunity to get them to a safe place.Once they are safely positioned, you will have the opportunity to watch them during the seizures and take the appropriate actions.Documentation should include the time the aura started and the symptoms. Important is to note if the patient was cognitive at during the aura.
28 The Ictal Stage Stage 2-The ictal stage is the actual event. The goal is to protect the patient from injuryTurn the patient on their side to keep the airway clear. Maintain the airway; use oxygen and suction as needed.Loosen any restrictive clothing.Do not restrain the patient or stop movement. Guide the movement if necessary. Especially those patients who want to walk around.Note the time the seizure began and ended.NEVER FORCE ANYTHING INTO THE PATIENT’S MOUTH!!
29 Post-ictal stageStage 3-During the post-ictal stage, the brain is in a state of recovery.Patient may become confused or disoriented.With tonic-clonic seizures or some complex-partial, the patient will become extremely drowsy and fall to sleep. This can last from 5-30 minutes.Take the patient’s vital signs.Perform neurological checks.Allow the patient to rest.Keep the patient on their side.
30 Post-ictalAssess the patient for any bleeding inside the mouth when awake. (Do not put your fingers into their mouth).Many seizure patient will bite and chew their tongues or cheeks.Patient may need oxygen at this time.
31 Focused AssessmentWhen observing and documenting the seizure, the following is important:Date, time and duration of the seizure, was there more than one.Description of the seizure: movement, staring, blinking, automatisms,Was there more than one type of seizure? If you are not sure of the type, document the movements of the seizure.Which body part was first involved?How long did the seizure last?Was there an aura?What was involved in the aura? Visual, Auditory, GI disturbances?What did the patient do after the seizure (post-ictal)?Drowsy, weak?Did the patient resume normal behavior?Was the patient aware the seizure took place?How long did it take for the patient to return to pre-seizure status
32 Observations during the seizure Observations and documentation during the seizure:Was there any eye deviations or changes in the pupil size, eye fluttering.Level of Consciousness, was the patient able to follow commandsPresence of apnea, cyanosis, salivationMovement and progression of motor activity; was a side more active during the seizure? (R vs. L)Lip smacking or other automatismsBiting of tongue or lip.
33 Diagnosis of seizure/epilepsy With first seizure, patient should go to the Emergency Room.Did they or did they experience a seizure?First-a thorough past and present medical history!!!Alcohol or drug use, medicationsDetailed information regarding the seizure: aura, movement, LOC, any injuries associated with the seizure.
34 Diagnostics Laboratory studies CBC, Metabolic Package, Drug screen, Urine drug screenOther labs to rule out medical conditions:Lumbar puncture (Meningitis)Prolactin-will increase 3x’s the normal after seizure for 12 hours after seizures.
35 Diagnostics Head CT Scan-r/o stroke, head injury, tumors MRI-can identify possible epilepsy lesionsElectroencephalogram-EEG-electrical signals of the brain are recorded.This electrical activity is detected by electrodes, or sensors, placed on the patient's scalp and transmitted to a machine that records the activity
37 Electrodes connected to scalp. The EEG shows the abnormal “waves” that are associated with the seizure.The brain waves consist ofBetaAlphaThetaDeltaSee the next slide for what these waves are associated with.
39 Treatments for Seizures Antiepileptic drugs (AED)The drug should be:1. highly effective, but exhibit a low incidence of toxicity.2. effective against more than one type of seizure and for mixed seizures.3. long acting and nonsedative so that the client is not incapacitated with sleep or excessive drowsiness.4. tolerated by the client and inexpensive, since the client may have to take it for years or the rest of his/her life.5. control seizures and permit a client to function effectively in any environment.6. Tolerance to the therapeutic effects of the drug should not develop.
40 Main Pharmacologic effects are: (1) to increase motor cortex threshold to reduce its response to incoming electric or chemical stimulation.(2) to depress or reduce the spread of a seizure discharge from its focus (origin) by depressing synaptic transport or decreasing nerve conduction
41 Common medicationsBarbiturates – phenobarbital. One of the first anticonvulsants used.Benzodiazepine- To suppress the propagation of diazepam (Valium) seizure activity produced by foci in the cortex, thalamus, and limbic areas.Hydantoins - Inhibit spread of seizure.Phenytoin (Dilantin).Blurred vision, gingival hyperplasiaElevated incidence of birth defects in children of mothers taking phenytoin.
42 AEDsdivalproex (Depakote). Derived from valproaic acid. Has been used during pregnancy but has been associated with spina bifida, fatal hepatic problems in infants•Carboxamides (Oxazolidinediones)Carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol)Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal)•GABA AnaloguesGabapentin (Neurontin)Pregabalin (Lyrica)Tiagabine (Gabitril)
43 Surgical ManagementAbout 20% of patients with epilepsy do not respond well to drug therapy. (Intractable seizures) These patients may undergo procedures to remove the foci of the seizures or to stop the progression of the seizures.The presurgical work-up is comprehensive and is directed at the identification of the seizures and the area of the brain it is located.
44 Vagus Nerve Stimulation Was approved for use in adults and children over 12 with partial-onset seizures and cannot be controlled by AEDsAn implantable programmed signal generator is placed in the left upper chest. A bipolar VNS lead connects the lead to the left vagus nerve in the neck.This sends stimulation to the brain stem which sends info to othe rest of the brain and interrupting the seizure.
46 Ketogenic Diet One of the oldest treatments for epilepsy It is intended to maintain starvation or fasting metabolism over a long period of time. In a fasting state, it creates ketones, a by-product of fat-burning metabolism.The diet is very high in fat and low in carbohydrates. High fats=ketones.It has been found that seizures often lessen or disappear during periods of fasting in some individuals with epilepsy.
47 Ketogenic DietDiet has been used mostly in children with difficult-to-control, generalized epilepsies –Recommended for children ages 2 through 12 who have been diagnosed with a generalized type of epilepsy and are not responding to drugs.Initiation of the diet usually takes place in the hospitalPatient should be monitored for potential side effects such as vomiting, low blood sugar, dehydration, and seizures.
48 Status EpilepticusContinuous seizures that last at least 5 minutes, or there are 2 or more seizures together with no recovery between the seizures.Usually a tonic-clonic seizure, in 50% of patients it is usually their first seizure. (Hickey, 2009).Although there are many types of status epilepticus, this information is based on the tonic-clonic seizure the most common and constitutes a medical emergency.
49 Status Epilepticus Initial nursing management: ABCs Position for airway clearance, suction to maintain patency.Oxygen at 100% via nasal cannula. (turn it up!) Monitor with pulse oximetry. Severe status can cause extreme cerebral hypoxia and can result in severe irreversible neurological deficits.Secure IV access with frequent vital sign monitoring.Protect the patient from injuryProvide information to to the family.
50 Status Epilepticus (SE) Medications used for SE are:BenzodiazepinesValiumLorazepamThese are ordered by mg per kg.The dose is usually given every 5 minutes until the seizure stops.
51 Seizure PrecautionsEach medical facility has its own policy for the safety of patients with seizures. Most protocols or standards of care include:Safety concerns-Side rails up, padded.Call bell at bedside, within patient’s reachO2 and suction at bedside, check function at the beginning of each shiftBed in low positionRemove glasses, sharp objects when seizingMaintain IV access
52 Nursing DiagnosisIneffective Breathing Pattern related to neuromuscular dysfunction during seizure.Ineffective airway clearance related to inability to control secretions during seizure.Risk for injury related to seizure activityFear related to the possibility of seizuresDeficient knowledge related to epilepsy and its control
53 Patient Education Educate patient and family on: Recognition of seizures and their safetyCompliance with medicationsDriving and seizure activityMedical ID braceletFamily SupportCommunity Resources
54 Epilepsy Syndromes and Childhood Seizures A major advance in recent epileptology is the recognition of epileptic syndromes that allows an accurate diagnosis and management of seizure disorders.Important clinical features includethe type of seizurestheir localizationfrequencysequence of eventscircadian distributionprecipitating factorsage at onsetmode of inheritancephysical or mental symptoms and signsprognosis, and response to treatment (epilepsy.com/professionals)
55 Childhood SeizuresChildren are more likely to experience seizures than adults.Newborns and young children have seizures most frequently. Their seizures are often caused by problems around the time of birth, including injuries during birth or infections.The types of seizures that children experience are different from those in adults and may be associated with an epileptic syndrome.
56 Infantile SpasmsInfantile spasms are an age-specific disorder beginning during the first 2 years of life.Peak age of onset is between 4 and 6 months. Approximately 90% of infantile spasms begin before 12 months of age.Rare for infantile spasms to begin during the first 2 weeks of life or after 18 months.
57 Febrile SeizuresFebrile seizures involve contractions in the child’s muscles—either mild (such as stiffening of the child’s limbs) or severe (tonic-clonic).Triggered by fever.Fairly common: About 2 to 5 percent of children in the United States experience a febrile seizure.Usually happen in children between 6 months and 5 years of age. Children who have febrile seizures often have a family history of this type of seizure.
58 ***Neonatal Seizures*** Neonatal period is the most vulnerable period of life for developing seizures.Neonatal epileptic seizures often constitute a neurological emergency demanding urgent diagnosis and management.Neonatal seizures are paroxysmal, repetitive, and stereotyped events. They are usually clinically subtle.There is no recognizable post-ictal state.Generalized tonic-clonic seizures probably do not occur.
59 Benign Familial Neonatal Seizures The diagnosis of this syndrome in a child with seizures is based on five criteria:normal neurologic examinationnegative evaluation for another etiology of the seizuresnormal developmental and intellectual outcomepositive family history of newborn or infantile seizures with benign outcomeonset of seizures during the neonatal or early infantile period)
60 Neonatal Seizures There are 5 main types of neonatal seizures: Subtle seizures (50%)Tonic seizures (5%)Clonic seizures (25%)Myoclonic seizures (20%)Non-paroxysmal repetitive behaviors
61 Neonatal Seizures Severe causes are usually the cause. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is the most common cause (80% of all seizures in the first 2 days of life).Previously common acute metabolic disturbances such as electrolyte and glucose abnormalities are now unusual causes.
62 Benign Rolandic Epilepsy Classified as an idiopathic, localization-related epileptic syndrome. It is characterized by:nocturnal generalized seizures, probable focal onsetdiurnal partial seizures arising from the lower rolandic areaBoth daytime and nighttime seizures may occur, although in most children the seizures usually occur during sleep.The disorder always begins during childhood.Age range is from 3 to 13 years, with the peak incidence occurring between the 7th and 8th year of life.Somewhat more common in boys than in girls.Most affected children have normal intelligence and normal findings on the neurologic examination.The disorder is usually familial.(http://professionals.epilepsy.com/page/syndromes_benign.html 2013)
63 Benign childhood focal seizures The most common pediatric seizure.25% of children with non-febrile seizures. Seizures are infrequent, usually nocturnal, and remit within 1 to 3 years from onset.Brief or prolonged seizures, even status epilepticus, may be the only clinical event of the patient’s lifetime.Ictal autonomic manifestations are frequent and may occasionally appear in isolation as in pure autonomic seizures.
64 Nursing Care for pediatrics Nursing care for children is the same but should include:Safety should include the rails of the crib, or bed so the child does not roll out.Children’s brain cannot recover from status well. Medications should be given ASAP.Rectal benzodiazepines may be used for seizure control.
65 For school age and adolescents, the school should know the type of seizure and what to expect from the child.Parental/Caregiver support is a must!Some young girls may experience seizures in conjunction with puberty and their menstrual cycle. Hormones play a large part in seizure activity.
66 Questions1. In teaching family members how to care for a patient during a seizure, the nurse should include which of these measures?a. Begin cardiac compressionsb. Sit the client in an upright positionc. Do not force anything into the patient’s mouth d. Hold the patient down so not to injure himselfANSWER: C
67 Question #2An ictal assessment should include the following: (Select all that apply)a. Name, addressb. Time the event startedc. Movement of extremitiesd. Vocalizationse. Cognition during the eventANSWER: b, c, d, e
68 Question #3One out of ten people will experience a seizure at least once in their life.TrueFalseTrue
69 Question #4Upon entering the patient’s room at the end of the seizure, the patient can tell the nurse everything that happened during the seizure. The nurse realizes that this patient experienced a:a. Complex Partial Seizureb. Generalized Tonic-Clonicc. Myoclonic Seizured. Simple Partial SeizureANSWER: D
70 Question #5 Status Epilepticus is a: (select all that apply) a. an medical emergencyb. Name for a generalized seizurec. Continuous seizure lasting for longer that minutesd. A possible fatal condition
71 References Epilepsy Foundation www.epilepsyfoundation.org Ignatavicius, Donna (2010) Medical-Surgical Nursing, Patient-Centered Collaborative Care. Elsevier St. Louis, Missouri.Hickey, Joanne (2009) The Clinical Practice of Neurological and Neurosurgical Nursing 6th ed. , Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.KSA competencies for pre-licensure (2013) qsen.org.EEG, Vagus Nerve Stimulator
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