Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 18 Double V for Victory From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Double V for Victory From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Double V for Victory From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed.

2 Reframing the Arsenal of Democracy Blacks in the Armed Forces September 1940 black leaders submitted seven point program outlining minimum essentials for treatment of blacks in the military All available black reserves be used to train recruits Black recruits receive same training as white recruits Acceptance based on ability not race Specialized personnel be integrated Blacks appointed to draft boards Discrimination abolished in Navy and Army Air Corps African American appointments to serve as assistants to secretaries of war and navy © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

3 Reframing the Arsenal of Democracy War Department issued statement that African Americans would be received in army proportionally to its population in the country Did not call for integrated troops Under pressure, Roosevelt appointed promoted Colonel Benjamin O. Davis to brigadier general Appointed other blacks to significant positions Blacks did not benefit from America’s industrial mobilization Prejudice rampant © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3

4 Reframing the Arsenal of Democracy The March on Washington in 1941 A. Philip Randolph planned all-black march on Washington; emphasized new style of activism Large scale direct action demanding defense jobs and an integrated military Government officials alarmed at the march’s growing momentum attempted to discourage it Randolph called off the march only after Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 prohibiting discrimination in employment in the defense industry and the government © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4

5 5 A. Philip Randolph rallies black Americans throughout the nation to march on Washington in 1941

6 Reframing the Arsenal of Democracy Executive Order 8802 Clause prohibiting discrimination required in all defense contracts Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) established to receive and investigate complaints No power to impose punishment White employers opposed order Did not overturn Jim Crow in the South © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6

7 Reframing the Arsenal of Democracy Hastie and Discrimination in the Armed Forces William Hastie authored report revealing ways blacks were underutilized and discriminated against in the armed forces Found they were overwhelmingly assigned unskilled and menial duties War Department believed integrating troops was neither practical nor desirable © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7

8 In Military Service After 1940 passage of Selective Service Act, more than 3 million blacks registered for potential service Served in a variety of ways despite discrimination Participation in administration of Selective Service Act reduced discrimination © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8

9 In Military Service Black Women in the Military More than 4,000 enlisted in Women’s Army Corps Protracted effort of black nurses to gain respect Passage of Draft Nurse Bill ended army’s discriminatory policy © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9

10 10 Lt. Harriet Pickens and Ens. Frances Wills

11 In Military Service Tuskegee: Black Airmen In late 1940, government announced plan to train African American pilots in Tuskegee, Alabama Some objected to segregation; others saw it as progress Nearly 2,000 black men completed pilot or support skills training The Navy, the Marines, and Officer Training Not until 1942 did the Navy and Marines begin to loosen exclusionary policies African Americans agitated for opportunity to become commissioned officers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11

12 In Military Service Overseas Service—Europe Half a million African Americans saw overseas service during World War II Twenty-two black combat units participated in European ground operations January 1945 troops integrated into unit to fight on German soil Troops remained segregated in Mediterranean Theater © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12

13 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Cpl. Carlton Chapman, tank machine gunner

14 In Military Service Service in the Pacific African Americans active in the war in the Pacific and East Asia Service in the Navy In July 1943, thousands of blacks trained to perform numerous technical tasks and given appropriate ratings Service in the Merchant Marine Far less segregated and discriminatory Four black captains with integrated crews © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14

15 In Military Service Racism at Home Black soldiers targets of racist acts at home Lynching; terrorizing; segregation Felix Hall Racism on military bases – USO, PXs, theaters Black press covered treatment of black soldiers and helped to mobilize agitation on home front War Department issued order of July 8, 1944, forbidding segregation in recreational and transportation facilities © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15

16 In Military Service Racial Clashes Riots and clashes took places both on and off military posts as African Americans attempted to resist segregation and discrimination © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16

17 In Military Service Recognition for Service African Americans received significant recognition for their military service during the war Dorie Miller; Private George Watson Executive Order 9981 signed by Harry S. Truman in July 1948 ended racial segregation in the armed forces © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17

18 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Dorie Miller

19 Keeping the Home Fires Burning Blacks prepared for employment by federal training programs but plagued by discriminatory hiring practices The Work of the FEPC The FEPC began to slowly turn tide for black workers Demonstrated instrumental role of government in changing employment practices Black leaders began to push to make the FEPC permanent © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19

20 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 African Americans in wartime industry: Women at welding plant in New Britain, Connecticut

21 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 African Americans in wartime industry: Men at shipyard in Baltimore, Maryland

22 Keeping the Home Fires Burning Support for the War Effort African Americans gave generously to war effort at home Purchased bonds Active in Office of Civilian Defense Initiatives Black-White Conflict at Home Black migration to North and West grew at fever pitch in 1940s Detroit race riot finally put to rest after Roosevelt issued state of emergency and sent soldiers © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22

23 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23 Crystal Bird Fauset, special assistant, Office of Civilian Defense

24 Keeping the Home Fires Burning The Problem of Low Morale Low morale a worry to black leaders Launched media campaign to build black morale and inform whites about role of blacks in the war effort Radio was extremely effective medium War Department used black artists, photographers, and film writers to tell stories of black bravery and patriotism © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24

25 Keeping the Home Fires Burning The Problem of Low Morale Publicity did not assuage black resentment toward military segregation William Hastie resigned over issue in 1943 Black journalists covering the war from abroad wrote about black heroism in the war and white racism in the armed forces © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25


Download ppt "Chapter 18 Double V for Victory From Slavery to Freedom 9 th ed."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google