Presentation on theme: "Sunshine Care Training Sarah Yorwerth & Tara Hollinshead Information supplied by an experienced paramedic to guide you through first aid and a reference."— Presentation transcript:
Sunshine Care Training Sarah Yorwerth & Tara Hollinshead Information supplied by an experienced paramedic to guide you through first aid and a reference for the future.
The Aims of First Aid.
Priorities- Primary Survey
Resuscitation Flow Chart. DANGER? RESPONSE AIRWAY NORMAL BREATHING 999/112 NO REMOVE DANGER SHOUT FOR HELP Look, listen & feel 10 seconds!
The chain of survival- CPR
Not breathing ‘normally’?
Head to toe- Secondary Survey
Possible Signs & Symptoms ! ?
The main causes of unconsciousness
Head Injury ? ??
Choking ! ? First, encourage the casualty to cough. Mild obstructions will clear. If the obstruction is not cleared, it is a severe airway obstruction. The following steps should be carried out:
! If casualty falls unconscious, start CPR immediately. The casualty must seek medical attention once obstruction has cleared.
Asthma ? Difficulty breathing Wheezy breath sounds Difficulty speaking Pale, clammy skin Cyanosis Exhaustion Unconsciousness Help to sit upright or lean on a table in front Help the casualty use their inhaler (can be repeated every few minutes) Light conversation Reassurance. If no improvement, 999/112
Fainting ? Pale, clammy skin Slow pulse Falling to the floor Blurred vision/ dizziness prior. Cyanosis (shock) Air Hunger (deep sighing) Lay casualty down and raise their legs Check Airway & Breathing Remove causes of stress. Reassurance If they feel fain again, repeat. Look for the cause Loosen tight clothing. Keep casualty insulated. !
Wounds & Bleeding
Wounds & bleeding
SEEPSEEP Sit or lay the casualty down Examine the wound for objects and how it is bleeding. Elevate the wound. Above the heart- gravity! Direct/indirect pressure to stem bleeding. 10 minutes to stop bleeding.
Poisons IngestedSwallowed InhaledBrreathed in AbsorbedThrough skin InjectedDirectly into tissues/blood vessel CorrosivesAcids, bleach, ammonia, petrol, turpentine, dishwasher powder etc Non- corrosivesTablets, drugs, alcohol, plants or perfume Look for clues- containers, drugs, syringes, smells. Vomiting or retching Abdominal pain Burns, breathing, headache. ?
Burns & Scalds.
Broken Bones Fractures Closed Fracture- a clean break or crack. Complicated fracture- Trapped blood vessels or nerves. Open fracture- The skin has become broken by the bone which may be protruding from wound. High risk of infection. Green stick fracture- common in children, bone is split. May be mistaken for sprains/strains.
Sprains & Strains !
Spinal Injury ? Sustained a blow to the head, neck or back Fallen from a height Dived into shall water Speed Crushing accident Multiple injuries Pain or tenderness Or if you are in doubt.
? Pain or tenderness in neck or back Signs of a fracture Loss of control Loss of feeling Sensations such as pins & needles Breathing difficults Incontinence. Conscious casualty Reassurance. Do not move Keep in save position- only move if in serious danger. Hold their head still 999/112 Unconscious and breathing normally Do not move unless severe danger Breathing normally? Airway is clear 999/112 Hold head still If casualty starts to vomit, place casualty in the recovery position. Keep the head, neck and back inline when rolling. Will take more than one person. Not breathing? Open airway and start CPR.
The Log roll
! Unlike other cells, the brain can only use glucose (sugar) as its source of energy. If the sugar in the blood becomes low, the brain will starve.
Epilepsy Guide the casualty away from any danger, Sit in a quiet place, and lots of reassurance Stay until fully alert If it is unusual- advise them to see their GP,
Generalised Seizures. Involves electrical activity in the whole brain so usually the whole body is affected. It can be a frightening experience. Aura- Very rarely, the casualty may have a sensation before the seizure such as a strange feeling, taste of smell. Although a majority have no warning. Tonic Phase- ever muscle in the body becomes rigid suddenly. May let out a cry and will all to the floor. The back may arch and lips go blue. Usually lasts for 30 seconds Clonic Phase- The limbs will make a sudden violent jerk-like movements, the eyes may roll, teeth may clench and may drool. This phase can last from 15 seconds to hours- although seizures should stop after a couple of minutes. Anything over 15 minutes as a medical emergency. Recovery phase- The body relaxes- though the casualty is still unresponsive. The casualty may not be fully alert for 20 minutes or so. They may want to sleep and be unaware of what just happened.
! Never place anything in casualties mouth, Never restrain them or move them during seizure.