How a mineral reflects light from its surface is called _______.
What is the formula for density?
Compare and contrast cleavage and fracture.
Cleavage refers to when a mineral splits easily along a flat surface. Fracture describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way.
What is molten material from the mantle that hardens to form rock.
Magma that reaches the surface.
What are the 7 properties that we use to determine which mineral is which?
1.Color 2. Streak 3. Luster 4. Density 5. Hardness 6. Special Properties 7. Cleavage and fracture
The size, shape, and pattern of the rock’s grains is called_______.
What are the 2 categories of metamorphic rocks?
What are the three groups into which geologists classify rocks?
Igneous metamorphic sedimentary
Name and describe the two types of igneous rock.
Extrusive- igneous rock formed from lava that erupted onto Earth’s surface. Intrusive- igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath Earth’s surface.
What is the most abundant intrusive rock that is in the part of the crust that makes up the continents?
What is the most common type of extrusive rock?
What is the difference between composition and texture?
Composition is the minerals that make up the rock. Texture is the arrangement, size and shape of the minerals.
What is the difference between coarse grained and fine grained?
Coarse- grains are large and easy to see Fine- grains are too small and can only be seen with a microscope.
Make an inference and then an observation.
What are the three types of sedimentary rocks? Give and example of each
Clastic- shale, sandstone, conglomerate and breccia Organic- coal and limestone Chemical-limestone and rock salt.
Explain what causes an igneous rock to have a fine-grained or coarse- grained texture?
How fast they cool. Rapid cooling=fine grained Slow cooling=coarse grained
What are small solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things?
List and explain the processes that change sediment to sedimentary rock.
1.Weathering water or wind loosen away fragments of rock 2. Erosion- the carrying away of sediments. 3. Deposition- process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind carrying it. 4. Compaction- process that presses sediments together. 5. Cementation- process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together.
How are metamorphic rocks formed?
Sedimentary Rock Exposed Extreme Heat &pressure!