Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 (Part 2) Review. Animal Characteristics lHlHeterotrophs lMlMulticellular lMlMove from place to place at some point in their lives. lMlMost reproduce."— Presentation transcript:
Animal Characteristics lHlHeterotrophs lMlMulticellular lMlMove from place to place at some point in their lives. lMlMost reproduce sexually.
3 Things Animals Need To Survive l Food l Water l Oxygen
Different Types of Feeders l Herbivore l Eats plants (veggies/fruit) l Carnivore l Eats other animals (meat) l Omnivore l Eats plants and animals
How To Classify Animals l Scientists group animals into different phyla based on the following characteristics: l DNA l Body structure l Development of the embryo (fertilized egg)
Worm Characteristics l Invertebrates l Have long, narrow bodies without legs. l Have tissues, organs, and organ systems. l Bilateral symmetry. l Have heads and tails.
3 Major Phyla of Worms l Phylum Platyhelminthes l Flatworms l Phylum Nematoda l Roundworms l Phylum Annelida l Segmented worms
Characteristics: Flatworms lSlShape = flat lMlMost are parasitic (i.e. tapeworms) lElExamples = tapeworms and planarians
Characteristics: Roundworms l Live in moist environments. l Shape = cylindrical l Type of feeder: l Carnivores l Herbivores l Parasites l Examples = hookworm
Characteristics: Segmented Worms l Shape = segmented or sectioned l Have a closed circulatory system l Come out at night to feed because... l Predators are asleep l Night air is moist – get oxygen from water. l Examples = earthworms
Earthworms are helpful l Earthworms make the soil more fertile by pooping in it. l They also loosen the soil by making tunnels which makes it easier for plant roots to grow into the ground. l More plants = more food for humans.
Mollusk Characteristics l invertebrates l Soft bodies l Mantle – protects inner organs, makes shell l Foot - to help move l Most have a shell (EXCEPT: slugs, octopuses)
3 Major Classes l Class Gastropoda l Snails and slugs. l Class Bivalvia l Clams, oysters, squid, mussels l Class Cephalapoda l Squid, nautiluses, octopuses, cuttlefish
Characteristics: Gastropods lRlRadula – tiny ribbon of teeth used to scrape food. lOlOne shelled
Characteristics: Bivalves l Two shells l No radula l Have gills l Foot adapted for digging l Live in watery environments
Characteristics: Cephalopods l Complex nervous system l Swim using jet propulsion l Foot = tentacles that surround mouth
Squid Adaptations l Chromatosphores – camoflauge l Tentacles/arms – to grab food l Jet propulsion – to move (for food, away from predators) l Eyes on side of head – can see behind them l Gills – get oxygen from water l Ink sac – used to get away from predator
Arthropod Characteristics l Invertebrates l Exoskeleton l Segmented body l Joint appendages
4 Major Classes l Crustaceans l Lobster, crayfish, shrimp, crabs l Arachnids l Spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions l Insects l Ants, flies, beetles, cricket, bees, etc. l Myriapods l Centipedes, Millipedes
Characteristics: Crustaceans l2l2-3 body sections l1l14 appendages l5l5 or more pairs of legs l2l2 pairs of antennae lLlLives in water or damp places. lSlSome are carnivores, others are herbivores.
Characteristics: Arachnids l 2 body sections l 8 appendages l 4 pairs of legs l No antennae l Lives mostly on land l carnivores
Characteristics: Insects l 3 body sections l 8 appendages l 3 pairs of legs l 1 pair of antennae l Lives mostly on land l Some are carnivores, some are herbivores
Characteristics: Millipedes l 80 or more body sections l 160 or more appendages l 160 or more pairs of legs (2 pairs on each segment) l 1 pair of antennae l Live in warm/moist environments l herbivores
Characteristics: Centipedes l 100 or more body sections l 200 or more appendages l 100 or more pairs of legs l 1 pair of antennae l Live in warm/moist environments l carnivores
Arthropod’s Body l The arthropod’s body is split up into three main sections: l Head l Abdomen l Thorax
Vertebrate Characteristics l Phylum Chordata l Have a notochord l Turns into a backbone in MOST vertebrates. l Have a nerve cord l Have slits in throat area (called pharyngeal slits) l Endoskeleton
Endoskeleton lIlInternal (inside) skeleton lMlMade up of three major bones: lBlBackbone lSlSkull lRlRibs lPlPurpose: lSlSupports body lHlHelps give body shape lGlGives muscles a place to attach
Ectotherm vs. Endotherm l Ectotherms (i.e. reptiles, fishes) l Body does not make internal heat. l Body temperature depends on temp. of environment. l Endotherm (i.e. humans) l Body temperature is controlled from inside. l Body temperature does NOT depend on outside environment.
Fishes Characteristics l Vertebrate l Closed circulatory system l Most have fins – steering/moving l Gills
3 Classes of Fishes l Jawless Fishes l Hagfish, lampreys l Cartilaginous Fishes l Sharks, Skates, Rays l Bony Fishes l Garibaldi, goldfish, sheep head, trout, tuna, etc.
Characteristics: Jawless Fishes l No scales l No jaws l Skeleton made of cartilage l Do not have pairs of fins
Characteristics: Cartilaginous Fishes l Have scales l Have jaws l Skeleton made of cartilage l Have pairs of fins l Cannot pump water over gills – must keep moving or sit in current
Characteristics: Bony Fishes lHlHave scales lHlHave jaws lSlSkeleton made of hard bone lPlPumps water over gills – water comes in through mouth and is pumped over gills lSlSwim bladder lglgas filled organ lflfish won’t sink or float (neutral buoyancy)
Mammals Characteristics l Endothermic l Vertebrates l 4 chambered heart l Have fur or hair – keeps body warm l Internal (inside) fertilization l Gives birth to live young (EXCEPT monotremes) l Young fed with mother’s milk
3 Groups of Mammals l Monotremes l Duck-Billed Platypus l Marsupials l Kangaroos, Opossums l Placental l Humans
Characteristics: Monotremes l Young develop from eggs laid by mother
Characteristics: Marsupials l Young are born alive early (premature) l Continue to grow and develop in mother’s pouch
Characteristics: Placental l Develop inside mother’s body attached to a placenta (a sac connected by a tube that feeds the baby nutrients from the mother) l They are not born at an early stage of development