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FVCC FIRE RESCUE SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.

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Presentation on theme: "FVCC FIRE RESCUE SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FVCC FIRE RESCUE SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS

3 OBJECTIVES  2-4.1Identify the hazardous environments requiring the use of respiratory protection (3-3.1)  2-4.2Identify the physical requirements of a SCBA user (3-3.1)  2-4.3Identify the uses and limitations of SCBA (3-3.1)  2-4.4Identify each component and safety feature of SCBA (3-3.1)

4 OBJECTIVES  2-4.5Identify the function of each component of SCBA (3-3.1)  2-4.6Identify the daily inspection procedures for the main components of SCBA per manufacturer’s recommendations. (3-5.3)  2-4.7Identify safety procedures to be used when wearing and working with SCBA to include: (3- 3.1, 3-3.4, 3-3.8) General safety considerations Monitoring of firefighters entering hazardous situations Maintenance and storage operations

5 OBJECTIVES  2-4.8Identify the following emergency procedures to be used in the event of SCBA failure: (3-3.1(b))  Use of emergency bypass or purge valve  Conservation of air  Breathing from the breathing tube of regulator in the event of a face piece failure

6 OBJECTIVES  2-4.9Identify the major components of a SCBA recharging system, giving purpose and operating principles (3-5.3)  Identify rescue procedures for the following without compromising the rescuer’s respiratory protection: (3-3.1(b), 3-3.4(b), 3-3.8(b))

7 OBJECTIVES  A firefighter with functioning respiratory protection  A firefighter without functioning respiratory protection  A civilian without respiratory protection  Identify the methods of donning and doffing of SCBA while wearing full protective equipment  Donning SCBA  Doffing SCBA

8 OBJECTIVES  Demonstrate donning and doffing of SCBA while wearing full protective equipment: (3- 3.1(b))  Don and activate SCBA, within 1 minute, according to manufacturer’s recommendations  Doff SCBA according to manufacturer’s recommendations

9 OBJECTIVES  Demonstrate that the SCBA is in a safe condition for immediate use ( , 3-3.1(b))  Demonstrate and document the cleaning and sanitizing of SCBA components (3-5.3(b))  Demonstrate the daily inspection procedures for the main components of SCBA according to the manufacturer’s recommendations (3- 5.3(b))

10 OBJECTIVES  Demonstrate the proper procedure for recharging air cylinders used by the fire department used by the fire department according to manufacturer’s recommendations (3-5.3(b))  Demonstrate the use of all types of SCBA used by the fire department in conditions of obscured visibility (3-3.1(b), 3-3.4(b))

11 OBJECTIVES  Demonstrate the following emergency procedures to be used in the event of SCBA failure: (3-3.1(b), 3-3.4(b))  Use of the emergency bypass or purge valve  Conservation of air  Breathing from the breathing tube or regulator in the event of a face piece failure  Demonstrate techniques for maximizing the air capacity of an SCBA under work conditions (3-3.1(b), (b))

12 OBJECTIVES  Demonstrate air cylinder exchange while SCBA is being worn by a firefighter according to procedures discussed in class (3-3.1(b), 3-3.4(b))  Demonstrate air cylinder exchange while SCBA is NOT being worn by a firefighter according to procedures discussed in class (3-3.1(b), 3-3.4(b))

13 OBJECTIVES  Demonstrate rescue procedures for the following without compromising the rescuer’s respiratory protection: (3-3.1(b), 3-3.4(b), 3-3.8(b))  A firefighter with functional respiratory protection  A firefighter without functional respiratory equipment  A civilian without respiratory protection

14 OBJECTIVES  Demonstrate the use of SCBA in exiting through areas with restricted openings in emergency situations (3-3.1(b), 3-3.9(b), (b)) IFSTA, Essentials, 4 th ed, Chapter 4 Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, 2000, Chapter 7

15 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Oxygen deficiency  Combustion process consumes oxygen  Production of toxic gases may displace oxygen  Oxygen concentration diluted by other gases during combustion process

16 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Physiological effects of reduced oxygen (hypoxia) Normal – 21% oxygen in air 17% oxygen in air Some muscular impairment Increase in respiratory rate 12% oxygen in air Dizziness, headache, rapid fatigue 9% oxygen in air Unconsciousness 6% or less oxygen in air Death occurs in minutes from respiratory failure and concurrent heart failure

17 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS

18  Elevated temperatures  Heated air can damage respiratory tract Excessive heat ( degrees) Blood pressure drop Circulatory failure Inhalation of heated gases Pulmonary edema Death from asphyxiation Respiratory tissue is not immediately reversible with the introduction of fresh, cool air

19 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Smoke  Smoke is a suspension of fine particles of tar, carbon and dust Tar Carbon Dust  Provides a means for the condensation of some of the gaseous products of combustion such as aldehydes and organic acids  Some of these particles are lethal; some are irritating  Size of particles determine how deeply they will penetrate into the lung

20 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Toxic gases  During fires, a firefighter will be exposed to combinations of irritants and toxicants Each fire will present different products of combustion Combinations may have a synergistic effect  Harmful effects of inhaled toxic gases Disease of the lung tissue Impair the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells Ex. Carboxyhemoglobin

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22 HAZARDOUS ENVIROMENTS  Toxic gases cont.  Type of toxic gases given off are dependent upon: Nature of the combustion Rate of heating Temperature of involved gases Oxygen concentration at time of combustion

23 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Commonly found fire gases  Carbon monoxide (CO) More fire deaths occur from exposure to carbon monoxide than any other product of combustion Colorless Odorless Present at every fire Results from incomplete combustion Carbon monoxide combines with the blood’s hemoglobin about 200 times more readily than oxygen causing oxygen to be excluded and eventually hypoxia will result. Concentrations of carbon monoxide above five hundredths of one percent (0.05%) (500 PPM) can be dangerous

24 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Carbon monoxide cont. Symptoms include: Headache Dizziness Nausea Vomiting Cherry-red skin coloration Administering pure oxygen is the most important element in first aid care Brain injuries may appear up to three weeks after a severe exposure

25 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Hydrogen chloride Colorless gas Pungent odor Causes swelling of upper respiratory tract Labored breathing Suffocation can result Due to the increased use of plastics, PVC is commonly found at fires Polyvinyl chloride Overhaul stage is especially dangerous Latent heat can still decompose plastics Electrical cables may continue to decompose after fire is extinguished

26 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Hydrogen cyanide Interferes with respiration at the cellular and tissue level Classified as a chemical asphyxiate Colorless gas Noticeable almond odor Materials that emit hydrogen cyanide include: Wool, nylon, polyurethane foam, rubber, paper Concentrations above 270 PPM are almost immediately fatal

27 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Carbon dioxide Non-flammable Colorless Odorless Concentrations of greater than 10%-12% cause death within a few minutes from paralysis of the brain’s respiratory center Use caution when working around a total Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) total flooding system

28 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Nitrogen oxides Nitrogen dioxide Nitric oxide  Nitrogen dioxide is a pulmonary irritant Reddish brown in color Commonly called silo gas Released from pyroxylin plastics  Causes pulmonary edema  Reacts with water and oxygen to form nitric and nitrous acids  Causes arterial dilation, blood pressure variations, dizziness and headache  Irritating effects can be tolerated while a lethal dose is being inhaled

29 HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTS  Phosgene Colorless, tasteless gas Disagreeable odor Produced when Freon comes into contact with flame When in contact with water, it decomposes into hydrochloric acid

30 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF SCBA USER  Physical  Sound physical condition  Maximize amount of work that can be performed  Maximize available air supply  (Only as good as your weakest link)  Agility  Must be agile as the unit will restrict wearer’s movements  Will affect balance

31 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF SCBA USER  Facial features  Need good face piece seal  Presence of facial hair may not permit a proper seal including as little as a 24-hour growth  OSHA CFR  Medical  Good motor coordination needed  Must have good physical strength and size  Good cardiovascular system  Healthy respiratory system

32 PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OF SCBA USER  Mental Adequate training in use of equipment Self-confidence Emotional stability

33 USES AND LIMITATIONS OF SCBA  Limited visibility  Decreased ability to communicate  Increased weight  Decreased mobility

34 COMPONENTS AND SAFETY FEATURES OF SCBA  Note: Closed circuit used in hazardous materials is not used in firefighting  Basic components of open-circuit SCBA  Backpack and harness assembly Designed to hold the air cylinder on the firefighter’s back Adjustable harness straps provide a secure fit Waist strap is designed to properly distribute weight of cylinder pack

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36 COMPONENTS AND SAFETY FEATURES OF SCBA  Air cylinder assembly Many different sizes available Main weight of the breathing apparatus Cylinder pressures and capacities: Low pressure: 2216PSI, 45 cubic feet of air Rated to be 30-minute cylinder Expected use of time 12 to 18 minutes Low pressure: 3000 PSI, 66 cubic feet of air Rated as a 45-minute cylinder High pressure: 4500 PSI, 45 cubic feet of air Rated as a 30-minute cylinder High pressure: 4500 PSI, 88 or 90 cubic feet of air Rated as a one hour cylinder

37 COMPONENTS AND SAFETY FEATURES OF SCBA  Regulator Regulator reduces the pressure from the cylinder to slightly above atmospheric pressure and controls the flow to meet the needs of the wearer Bypass valve or purge valve is used as an emergency valve should the regulator fail

38 COMPONENTS AND SAFETY FEATURES OF SCBA  Regulator Pressure gauges are sometimes located on the regulator or in close proximity to the facepiece Should read within 100 PSI of the cylinder gauge All units are required to have an audible low pressure/quarter service alarm

39 COMPONENTS AND SAFETY FEATURES OF SCBA  Facepiece assembly Lens Exhalation valve-one way valve Possibly a low pressure hose Adjustable straps or webbing Speaking diaphragm

40 SCBA REGULATOR ASSSEMBLY VS 4B-6 Facepiece Interior Open Atmosphere Detail of Exhalation Valve Assembly Bypass Valve Regulator Mainline Valve High-Pressure Hose from Cylinder Regulator Gauge Low-Pressure Hose to Facepiece

41 SCBA FACEPIECE ASSEMBLY VS 4B-7 Facepiece-Mounted RegulatorBelt-Mounted Regulator Regulator Straps High- Pressure Hose Low- Pressure Hose High- Pressure Hose

42 CHECKING THE FACEPIECE VS 4B Seal low- pressure hose with hand. Inhale slowly. Hold breath 10 seconds. Facepiece should stay slightly collapsed until you exhale. Again seal low- pressure hose with hand. Exhale gently. Exhalation should go out exhalation valve.

43 COMPONENTS AND SAFETY FEATURES OF SCBA  Closed-circuit breathing apparatus  Not commonly used in the fire service  Sometimes used for hazardous materials or confined space incidents  Air supply of 30 minutes to 4 hours  Contain a cylinder of oxygen, filter system, regulator valves  Filters and cleans exhaled breath and adds pure oxygen

44 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SCBA RECHARGING SYSTEM  Compressor  Takes air and compresses it  Operating principles: Usually electric driven motors Takes ambient air and compresses it in stages Air is cooled after each stage

45 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SCBA RECHARGING SYSTEM  Purification system  Removes some contaminants in the air  Components Mechanical filter Dryer Air sweetener Carbon monoxide converter  Operating procedures Air moves from compressor to: Permanent filtering system Replaceable systems remove: oil, water, odors and other gases and contaminants

46 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SCBA RECHARGING SYSTEM  Cascade (storage) system  Three or more 300 cubic foot cylinders  Used for storage of compressed air  Open cylinders one at a time during filling of SCBA bottles

47 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF SCBA RECHARGING SYSTEM  Charging station  Used to protect the operator should the cylinder rupture  May or may not contain water depending on the type of cylinders being refilled  Contains fragmentation deflector  May contain other control valves

48 DAILY INSPECTION PROCEDURES  NFPA 1404 and NFPA 1500 require all SCBA to be inspected:  After each use  Weekly  Monthly  Annually

49 DAILY INSPECTION PROCEDURES  Periodic inspection and care  Check the face piece  Check the low pressure hose (if applicable)  Check the exhalation valve by inhaling slowly with the thumb or palm over the end of the hose connection and then exhaling slowly  Connect the low-pressure hose to the regulator and check the performance of the regulator, by inhaling deeply and quickly, checking to make sure that the regulator supplies a full flow

50 DAILY INSPECTION PROCEDURES  Cleaning and sanitizing of SCBA components Immediately after each use  Daily inspection procedures Check for full cylinder (minimum 90%) (4500 psi x.9) Check all gauges for proper operation (should register within 100 psi of each other Check low-pressure, quarter service alarm for function Check all hose connections (tight, not leaking) Face piece is clean and operational Straps and harness in good condition and is fully extended Operate bypass and mainline valves Bypass must be returned to closed position after testing 4050/2000

51 SAFETY PROCEDURES  General safety conditions  Use the provided SCBA in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations, instructions and training  Know the SCBA protection limits and safety features  Know air supply duration

52 SAFETY PROCEDURES  Calculate a point of no return  Ensure proper face piece fit  Follow basic safety guidelines Before entering a hazardous atmosphere, don and check the unit for operation Always work in pairs Stay in contact with a wall, hose line, lifeline/guideline or partner(s) Work to control breathing Be extremely cautious if forced to use the bypass valve Do not take the face piece off Report any malfunctions or apparent danger

53 SAFETY PROCEDURES  Protect the SCBA from damage  Inspect and maintain SCBA in accordance with department policy  Entry monitoring system  Entry control Some type of device provided for each individual entering the area Entry time and location maintained  Guideline system A series of lines to which others entering are attached An individual remains outside to monitor the line Entry time and location maintained

54 SAFETY PROCEDURES  Maintenance and storage operations  Cleaning and sanitizing Follow department SOP’s Clean and sanitize face piece after each use Use cleansers recommended by the manufacturer Inventory of spare face pieces  Inspection and testing for defects Follow department SOP’s Inspect all new units before placing in service

55 SAFETY PROCEDURES Have breathing air quality tested quarterly Ensure all inspections are performed by qualified personnel Keep accurate records Remove defective face pieces form service  Repair and conditioning Follow manufacturer procedures and recommendations Allow only personnel certified by the manufacturer to repair units Use exact replacement parts  Storage Follow department procedures Follow manufacturer’s instructions for storage

56 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF SCBA FAILURE  THIS TYPE OF TRAINING IS BASED ON YOUR PARTICULAR SCBA, FOLLOWING THE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS AND YOUR DEPARTMENT’S SOP’S.

57 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF SCBA FAILURE  Use of the emergency bypass or purge valve  In the event of a regulator malfunction, turn off mainline valve  Open the bypass or purge valve to provide a flow of air into the facepiece  Close the bypass valve after each breath and then open the valve when the next valve is needed  Advise your partner of your regulator malfunction and exit to a non-toxic atmosphere together  Remove the unit from service and have it checked

58 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF SCBA FAILURE  THIS TYPE OF TRAINING IS BASED ON YOUR PARTICULAR SCBA, FOLLOWING THE MANUFACTUER’S RECOMMENDATIONS AND YOUR DEPARTMENT’S SOP’S  Conservation of air  You should always practice controlled breathing when using SCBA  When your air supply is low, you may practice skip breathing  Skip breathing is an emergency breathing technique used to extend the use of your remaining air supply

59 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF SCBA FAILURE  Conservation of air cont.  To use this technique, inhale (as in regular breathing), hold your breath as long as it would take to exhale, then inhale once again before exhaling  Take normal breaths and exhale slowly to keep carbon dioxide in the lungs in the proper balance  This is an emergency technique: inform your partner of your low air supply and exit to a non-toxic atmosphere together

60 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF SCBA FAILURE  NOTE: THIS TYPE OF TRAINING IS BASED ON YOUR PARTICULAR SCBA, FOLLOWING THE MANUFACTURER’S RECOMMENDATIONS AND YOUR DEPARTMENT’S SOP’S.  Breathing from the breathing tube or regulator  This technique is used in the event of a face piece failure  You may breathe directly from the low-pressure hose (after disconnecting it from the face piece) or the regulator

61 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF SCBA FAILURE  Hold the hose or regulator opening close to your mouth  Avoid breathing in fire gases when inhaling  This is an EXTREME emergency technique; inform your partner and exit to a non-toxic atmosphere together IMMEDIATELY!

62 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IN THE EVENT OF SCBA FAILURE  ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON EMERGENCY BREATHING SITUATIONS CAN BE FOUND IN IFSTA’S SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS MANUAL.  ALWAYS PRACTICE IN A NON-TOXIC ATMOSPHERE ONLY!  EVALUATION TO BE DONE IN A NON-TOXIC ATMOSPHERE ONLY!  THE ABOVE DRILL EVOLUTIONS SHALL NEVER BE DONE IN A TOXIC ATMOSPHERE!

63 RESCUE PROCEDURES  A firefighter with functioning respiratory protection  Determine if the SCBA is functioning  Roll the firefighter onto the side, ensuring that the air supply is not compromised  Verify that the SCBA is securely fastened on the firefighter  Grasp the shoulder straps of the firefighter’s SCBA and drag him from the area

64 RESCUE PROCEDURES  A firefighter without functioning respiratory protection  Determine if the SCBA is functioning  If not, disconnect the lower pressure tube and place inside the firefighter’s coat or remove the regulator from the face piece, leaving the face piece in place  Roll the firefighter onto the side  Verify that the SCBA is securely fastened on the firefighter  Grasp the shoulder straps of the firefighter’s SCBA and drag him from the area

65 RESCUE PROCEDURES  An individual without functioning respiratory protection  NEVER remove your face piece to share your SCBA with a victim  Do not put yourself in a position that a conscious victim can pull your face piece from your face in an attempt to get air  If the civilian victim is conscious, lead them to the nearest exit as quickly as possible. Remember that the victim does not have protective clothing and may need to be taken out via a safer route than you entered  If the victim is unconscious, remove the victim as quickly as possible using any of the various drags or carries

66 EMERGENCY USE OF BYPASS VALVE VS 4B Low-Pressure HoseRegulator Gauge Bypass Valve Mainline Valve High-Pressure Hose 1. Close the mainline valve. 2. Open the bypass valve to inhale. 3. Close the bypass valve to exhale.

67 DONNING/STORING METHODS VS 4B-11 Over the Head Coat Compartment Mount Side or Rear Mount Seat Mount

68 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Dons and activates SCBA, within one minute, according to manufacturer’s recommendations  Donning SCBA from the ground – Over the head method  Crouch or kneel at the end opposite the cylinder valve  Check the air cylinder gauge to ensure that the cylinder is full

69 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Open the cylinder valve slowly and listen for the audible alarm as the system pressurizes  Fully open the cylinder valve after the alarm sounds: If the audible alarm does not sound, or if it sounds but does not stop, place the unit out of service by tagging it and notifying an officer; use another unit

70 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Check the regulator gauge and cylinder gauge pressure to ensure that they read within 100 psi of each other  Spread the harness straps out to their respective sides (This step may not be able to be performed at this point depending on the SCBA the student is using)  Grasp the back plate or cylinder with both hands, one at each side, making sure that the cylinder valve is pointed away from you

71 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Lift the cylinder, letting the regulator and harness hang freely  Raise the cylinder overhead, letting the elbows find the respective loosened harness shoulder strap loops  Grasp the shoulder straps as the SCBA begins to slide down the back  Let the straps slide through the hands as the backpack lowers into place  Lean forward to balance the cylinder on the back and fasten the chest buckle if the unit has a chest strap

72 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Continue leaning forward and tighten the shoulder straps by pulling them outward and downward. (Note: It is sometimes necessary to lean forward with a quick jumping motion to properly position the SCBA on the back while tightening the straps)  Fasten and adjust the waist strap until the unit fits snugly  If the face piece harness is a web-type, grasp the harness with your thumbs through the straps from the inside and spread the straps  Push the top of the harness up your forehead to remove hair that may be present between the forehead and the sealing surface of the face piece

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74 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Center the chin in the chin cup and position the face piece harness so it is centered at the rear of the head  Tighten the lower harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear  Tighten the temple harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear  Tighten the top harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear

75 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Perform user seal check Check the face piece seal by exhaling deeply, sealing the end of the low pressure hose with your bare hand, and inhaling slowly (not deeply) holding your breath for 10 seconds. (NOTE: Inhaling very quickly will temporarily seal any leak and will give a false sense of a proper seal) If there is evidence of leaking, adjust or re-don face piece

76 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Perform user seal check Check the exhalation valve by inhaling, while sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with the palm of your hand, and then exhaling If the exhalation escapes at the edges of the face piece and does not go through the exhalation valve, keep the low- pressure hose sealed, press the face piece against your face, and exhale to free the valve Use caution when exhaling against a sealed face piece in order to prevent discomfort and possible damage to the inner ear from exhaling forcefully

77 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Connect the low-pressure hose to the regulator. If the unit has a donning switch, turn it to the PRESSURE, USE or ON position. If the unit does not have a donning switch, open the mainline valve  Check for positive pressure by gently breaking the face piece seal by inserting two fingers under the edge of the face piece. You should be able to feel air moving past your fingers. If you cannot feel air movement, remove the unit from service and have it checked  Activate PASS, if not integral part of SCBA

78 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  From the ground – Crossed-arms coat method Crouch or kneel at the cylinder valve end of the unit. Check the air cylinder gauge to ensure that the cylinder is full. Open the cylinder valve slowly and listen for the audible alarm as the system pressurizes Open the cylinder valve fully after the alarm sounds If the audible alarm does not sound, or if it sounds but does not stop, place the unit out of service by tagging it and notifying an officer; use another unit. Check the regulator gauge and cylinder gauge to ensure that they read within 100 psi of each other

79 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Spread the harness straps out to their respective sides Cross your arms, left over right Grasp the shoulder straps at the top of the harness, left hand holding the left strap and right hand holding the right strap Lift the SCBA. Using both arms, swing the unit around your right shoulder, and raising your left arm, continue bringing the unit behind your head and onto your back. Both hands should still be grasping the shoulder straps high on the harness. Maintaining a firm grip on the straps, slide your hands down to the shoulder strap buckles. Your elbows should be between the straps and the backpack.

80 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Lean slightly forward to balance the cylinder on the back; tighten the shoulder straps by pulling them outward and downward. (Note: It is sometimes necessary to lean forward with a quick jumping motion to properly position the SCBA on the back while tightening the straps.) Continue leaning forward and fasten the check buckle (if the unit has a chest strap) Fasten and adjust the waist strap until the unit fits snugly. If the face piece harness is a web type, grasp the harness with your thumbs through the straps from the inside and spread the straps.

81 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Push the top of the harness up the forehead to remove hair that may be present between the forehead and the sealing surface of the face piece Center the chin in the chin cup and position the harness so that it is centered at the rear of the head Tighten the lower harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear Tighten the temple harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear Tighten the top harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear

82 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Perform user seal check: Check the face piece seal by exhaling deeply, sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with your bare hand, and inhaling slowly (not deeply), holding your breath for 10 seconds. (Note: Inhaling very quickly will temporarily seal any leak and will give a false sense of a proper seal.) If there is evidence of leaking, adjust or re-don the face piece Check the exhalation valve by inhaling while sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with the palm of your hand and exhaling

83 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA If the exhalation escapes at the edges of the face piece and does not go through the exhalation valve, keep the low-pressure hose sealed, press face piece against your face, and exhale to free the valve. Use caution when exhaling against a sealed face piece in order to prevent discomfort and possible damage to the inner ear from exhaling forcefully. Connect the low-pressure hose to the regulator. If the unit has a donning switch, turn it to the PRESSURE, USE or ON position. If the unit does not have a donning switch, open the mainline valve.

84 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check for positive pressure by gently breaking the face piece seal by inserting two fingers under the edge of the face piece. You should be able to feel air moving past your fingers. If you cannot feel air movement, remove the unit had have it checked. Activate PASS, if not integral part of SCBA

85 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  From the ground-regular coat method Crouch or kneel at the cylinder valve end of the unit Open the cylinder valve slowly and listen for the audible alarm as the system pressurizes. If the audible alarm does not sound, or if it sounds but does not stop, place the unit out of service by tagging it and notifying an officer; use another unit. Fully open the cylinder valve after the alarm sounds.

86 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the regulator gauge and cylinder gauge to ensure that they read within 100 psi of the same pressure. Spread the harness straps out to their respective sides and position the upper portion of the straps over the top of the back plate. At the top of harness, grasp the left strap with your left hand; grasp the lower portion of the same strap with your right hand. (When kneeling at the valve end of the cylinder, the left harness strap will be to your right)

87 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Lift the SCBA. Using both arms, swing the unit around the left shoulder, and onto the back. Both hands should still be grasping the shoulder strap. Maintaining your grip on the strap, with your left hand, release your right hand; insert your right arm between the right shoulder strap and the backpack frame. Lean forward to balance the cylinder on your back and fasten the chest buckle if the unit has a chest strap.

88 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Continue leaning forward and tighten the shoulder straps by pulling them outward and downward. (Note: It is sometimes necessary to lean forward with a quick jumping motion to properly position the SCBA on the back while tightening the straps.) Fasten and adjust the waist strap until the unit fits snugly. If the face piece harness is a web-type, grasp the harness with the thumbs through the straps from the inside, and spread the straps.

89 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Push the top of the face piece harness up the forehead to remove hair that may be present between the forehead and the sealing surface of the face piece. Center the chin in the chin cup and position the face piece harness so that it is centered at the rear of the head Pull the lower harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them. Pull the temple harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them. Pull the top harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them. Perform user seal check:

90 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the face piece seal by exhaling deeply, sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with your bare hand, and inhaling slowly (not deeply) holding your breath for 10 seconds. (Note: Inhaling very quickly will temporarily seal any leak and will give a false sense of a proper seal.) If there is evidence of leaking, adjust or re-don the face piece. Check the exhalation valve by inhaling while sealing the end of the low- pressure hose with the palm of your hand, and exhaling. If the exhalation escapes at the edges of the face piece and does not go through the exhalation valve, keep the low-pressure hose sealed, press face piece against your face, and exhale to free the valve.

91 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Use caution when exhaling against a sealed face piece in order to prevent discomfort and possible damage to the inner ear from exhaling forcefully. Connect the low-pressure hose to the regulator. If the unit has a donning switch, turn it to the PRESSURE, USE or ON position. If the unit does not have a donning switch, open the mainline valve. Check for positive pressure by gently breaking the face piece seal by inserting two fingers under the edge of the face piece. You should be able to feel air moving past your fingers. If you cannot feel air movement, remove the unit and have it checked. Activate PASS, if not integral part of SCBA

92 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  From the ground – alternate coat method Crouch or kneel at the cylinder valve end of the unit. Check the air cylinder gauge to ensure that the cylinder is full. Open the cylinder valve slowly and listen for the audible alarm as the system pressurizes. Fully open the cylinder valve after the alarm sounds. If the audible alarm does not sound, or if it sounds but does not stop, place the unit out of service by tagging it and notifying an officer; use another unit. Check the regulator gauge and cylinder gauge to ensure that they read within 100 psi of each other.

93 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Spread the straps out to their respective sides and position the upper portion of the straps over the top of the back plate. Grasp the top of the left shoulder strap with your left hand; grasp the regulator with your right hand. Life the SCBA; swing it around the left shoulder and onto the back; maintaining control of the regulator with your right hand. Transfer the regulator to your left hand; insert your right arm through the right shoulder strap; grasp the end of the waist strap with your right hand and loosely connect the waist strap. Lean forward to balance the cylinder on your back and then fasten the chest buckle, if the unit has a chest strap.

94 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Continue leaning forward and tighten the shoulder straps by pulling them outward and downward. (Note: It is sometimes necessary to lean forward with a quick jumping motion to properly position the SCBA on the back while tightening the straps.) Fasten and adjust the waist strap until the unit fits snugly. If the face piece harness is a web-type, grasp the harness with your thumbs through the straps from the inside, and spread the straps.

95 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Push the top of the harness up the forehead to remove hair that may be present between the forehead and the sealing surface of the face piece. Center the chin in the chin cup and position the harness so that it is centered at the rear of the head. Tighten the lower harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear. Tighten the temple harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear.

96 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Tighten the top harness straps by pulling them evenly and simultaneously to the rear. Perform user seal check: Check the face piece seal by exhaling deeply, sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with your bare hand, and inhaling slowly (not deeply), holding your breath for 10 seconds. (Note: Inhaling very quickly will temporarily seal any leak and will give a false sense of a proper seal.) If there is evidence of leaking, adjust or re-don the face piece.

97 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the exhalation valve by inhaling while sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with the palm of your hand, and exhaling. If the exhalation escapes at the edges of the face piece and does not go through the exhalation valve, keep the low- pressure hose sealed, press face piece against your face, and exhale to free the valve. Use caution when exhaling against a sealed face piece in order to prevent discomfort and possible damage to the inner ear from exhaling forcefully.

98 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Connect the low-pressure hose to the regulator. If the unit has a donning switch, turn it to the PRESSURE, USE or ON position. If the unit does not have a donning switch, open the mainline valve. Check for positive pressure by gently breaking the face piece seal by inserting two fingers under the edge of the face piece. You should be able to feel air moving past your fingers. If you cannot feel air movement, remove the unit and have it checked. Activate PASS, if not integral part of SCBA.

99 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  From a back-up mount Uncover the SCBA Remove face piece and place it nearby Open the cylinder valve slowly and listen for the audible alarm as the system pressurizes. Fully open the cylinder valve after the alarm sounds. If the audible alarm does not sound, or if it sounds but does not stop, place the unit out of service by tagging it and notifying and officer; use another unit.

100 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the regulator gauge and cylinder gauge to ensure that they read within 100 psi of each other Back up against the cylinder back plate Place your arms through the shoulder straps. Lean slightly forward to balance the unit on your back and release the cylinder according to the type of mounting device. Step forward to clear the unit from the mount while fastening the chest buckle, if the unit has a chest strap.

101 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Tighten the shoulder straps Fasten and adjust the waist strap until the unit fits snugly. If the face piece harness is a web-type, grasp the harness with the thumbs through the straps from the inside, and spreads the straps. Push the top of the face piece harness up the forehead to remove hair that may be present between the forehead and the sealing surface of the face piece.

102 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Center the chin in the chin cup and position the face piece harness so that it is centered at the rear of the head. Pull the lower harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them. Pull the temple harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them. Pull the top harness straps evenly simultaneously to the rear to tighten them. Perform user seal check:

103 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the face piece seal by exhaling deeply, sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with your bare hand, and inhaling slowly (not deeply), holding your breath for 10 seconds. (Note: Inhaling very quickly will temporarily seal any leak and will give a false sense of a proper seal.) If there is evidence of leaking, adjust or re-don the face piece.

104 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the exhalation valve by inhaling while sealing the end of the low pressure hose with the palm of your hand, and exhaling. If the exhalation escapes at the edges of the face piece and does not go through the exhalation valve, keep the low pressure hose sealed, press face piece against your face, and exhale to free the valve. Use caution when exhaling against a sealed face piece in order to prevent discomfort and possible damage to the inner ear from exhaling forcefully.

105 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Connect the low-pressure hose to the regulator. If the unit has a donning switch, turn it to the PRESSURE, USE or ON position. If the unit does not have a donning switch, open the mainline valve.

106 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check for positive pressure by gently breaking the face piece seal by inserting two fingers under the edge of the face piece. You should be able to feel air moving past your fingers. If you cannot feel air movement, remove the unit and have it checked. Activate PASS, if not integral part of SCBA.  Donning from a seat-mount en route Check the air cylinder gauge to ensure the cylinder is full prior to response, if possible Open the cylinder valve slowly and listen for the audible alarm as the system pressurizes

107 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Fully open the cylinder valve after the alarm sounds. If the audible alarm does not sound, or if it sounds but does not stop, place the unit out of service by tagging it and notifying an officer; use another unit. Check the regulator gauge and cylinder gauge to ensure that they read within 100 psi of each other Place your arms through fully extended shoulder straps. Tighten the shoulder straps

108 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Fasten and adjust the waist strap until the unit fits snugly. (Be careful not to entangle with apparatus seat belt) Re-check shoulder and waist straps when you dismount the apparatus. If the face piece harness is a web-type, grasp the harness with the thumbs through the straps from the inside, and spread the straps. Push the top of the face piece harness up the forehead to remove hair that may be present between the forehead and the sealing surface of the face piece. Center the chin in the chin cup and position the face piece harness so that it is centered at the rear of the head

109 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Pull the lower harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them. Pull the temple harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them Pull the top harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them Perform user seal check: Check the face piece seal by exhaling deeply, sealing the end of the low pressure hose with your bare hand, and inhaling slowly (not deeply) holding your breath for 10 seconds. (Note: Inhaling very quickly will temporarily seal any leak and will give a false sense of a proper seal.) If there is evidence of leaking, adjust or re-don the face piece

110 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the exhalation valve by inhaling while sealing the end of the low pressure hose with the palm of your hand, and exhaling. If the exhalation escapes at the edges of the face piece and does not go through the exhalation valve, keep the low-pressure hose sealed, press face piece against your face, and exhale to free the valve. Use caution when exhaling against a sealed face piece in order to prevent discomfort and possible damage to the inner ear from exhaling forcefully. Connect the low pressure hose to the regulator. If the unit has a donning switch, turn it to the PRESSURE, USE or ON position. If the unit does not have a donning switch, open the mainline valve.

111 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check for positive pressure by gently breaking the face piece seal by inserting 2 fingers under the edge of the face piece. You should be able to feel air moving past your fingers. If you cannot feel air movement, remove the unit and have it checked. Activate PASS, if not integral part of SCBA.  Donning the face piece with face piece-mounted regulator If the face piece is a web-type, grasp the harness with the thumbs through the straps from the inside and spread the straps

112 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Push the top of the face piece harness up the forehead to remove hair that may be present between the forehead and the sealing surface of the face piece Center the chin in the chin cup and position the face piece harness so that it is centered at the rear of the head Pull the lower harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them Pull the temple harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them Pull the top harness straps evenly and simultaneously to the rear to tighten them

113 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Perform user seal check: Check the face piece seal by exhaling deeply, sealing the end of the low pressure hose with your bare hand, and inhaling slowly (not deeply), holding your breath for 10 seconds. (Note: Inhaling very quickly will temporarily seal any leak and will give a false sense of a proper seal). If there is evidence of leaking, adjust or re-don the face piece.

114 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Check the exhalation valve by inhaling while sealing the end of the low-pressure hose with the palm of your hand, and exhaling. If the exhalation escapes at the edges of the face piece and does not go through the exhalation valve, keep the low pressure hose sealed, press face piece against your face, and exhale to free the valve. Use caution when exhaling against a sealed face piece seal by inserting two fingers under the edge of the face piece. You should be able to feel air moving past your fingers. If you cannot feel air movement, remove the unit from service and have it checked.

115 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  Doffs SCBA according to manufacturer’s recommendations.  With harness mounted regulator Close the mainline valve If the unit has a donning switch, make sure that it is in donning mode Disconnect the low pressure hose from the regulator Take off the helmet, or loosen and push it and the hood, back off the head. Loosen the face piece harness strap buckles Take off the face piece and extend the harness straps fully

116 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Unbuckle the waist belt and fully extend the adjustment Disconnect the chest buckle if the unit has a chest strap Lean forward Release the shoulder strap buckles and hold them open while fully extending the straps Grasp the shoulder straps firmly with the respective hands and slip the shoulder strap from the shoulder opposite the regulator and remove the arm from the shoulder strap

117 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Grasp the regulator with the free hand and allow the other strap to slide off the shoulder Lower the SCBA to the ground making sure you do not drop the regulator or allow it to strike anything Close the cylinder valve Relieve the excess pressure from the regulator following manufacturer’s recommendations Turn off PASS device

118 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  With face piece mounted regulator Take off the helmet, or loosen and push it and the hood, back off your head If the unit has a donning switch, make sure that it is in donning mode Depending upon the make of SCBA and manufacturer’s instructions, disconnect the regulator from the face piece Loosen the face piece harness strap buckles Unbuckle the waist belt and fully extend the adjustment Disconnect the chest buckle, if the unit has a chest strap If the unit is so equipped, attach the regulator to the harness clip, or control the regulator by holding it while performing the next steps

119 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Lean forward Release the shoulder straps buckles and hold them open while fully extending the straps Grasp the shoulder straps firmly with the respective hands and slip off the shoulder strap from the shoulder opposite the regulator, and remove the arm from the shoulder strap Grasp the regulator with the free hand and allow the other strap to slide off the shoulder Lower the SCBA to the ground making sure you do not drop the regulator or allow it to strike anything Close the cylinder valve

120 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Relieve the excess pressure from the regulator following manufacturer’s recommendations Turn off PASS device.  With harness mounted regulator Close the mainline valve If the unit has a donning switch, make sure that it is donning mode Disconnect the low pressure hose from the regulator Take off the helmet, or loosen and push it and the hood back off the head Loosen the face piece harness strap buckles Take off the face piece and extend the harness straps fully

121 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Unbuckle the waist belt and fully extend the adjustment Disconnect the chest buckle if the unit has a chest strap Lean forward Release the shoulder strap buckles and hold them open while fully extending the straps Grasp the shoulder straps firmly with the respective hands and slip the shoulder strap from the shoulder opposite the regulator, and remove the arm from the shoulder strap

122 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Grasp the regulator with the free hand and allow the other strap to slide off the shoulder Lower the SCBA to the ground making sure you do not drop the regulator or allow it to strike anything Close the cylinder valve Relieve the excess pressure from the regulator following manufacturer’s recommendations Turn off PASS device

123 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA  With face piece mounted regulator Take off the helmet, or loosen and push it and the hood, back off your head If the unit has a donning switch, make sure that it is in donning mode Depending upon the make of SCBA and manufacturer’s instructions, disconnect the regulator from the face piece Loosen the face piece harness strap buckles Unbuckle the waist belt and fully extend the adjustment Disconnect the chest buckle, if the unit has a chest strap If the unit is so equipped, attach the regulator to the harness clip, or control the regulator by holding it while performing the next steps

124 DONNING AND DOFFING SCBA Lean forward Release the shoulder straps buckles and hold them open while fully extending the straps Grasp the shoulder straps firmly with the respective hands and slip off the shoulder strap from the shoulder opposite the regulator, and remove the arm from the shoulder strap Grasp the regulator with the free hand and allow the other strap to slide off the shoulder Lower the SCBA to the ground making sure you do not drop the regulator or allow it to strike anything Close the cylinder valve Relieve the excess pressure from the regulator following manufacturer’s recommendations Turn off the PASS device

125 IS THE SCBA IN SAFE CONDITION?  Periodic inspection and care Checks the face piece Checks the low pressure hose Checks the exhalation valve by inhaling slowly with the thumb or palm over the end of the hose connection and then exhales slowly Connects the low pressure hose to the regulator and checks the performance of the regulator, by inhaling deeply and quickly, checking to make sure that the regulator supplies a full flow

126 CLEANING AND SANTIZING THE SCBA  Cleans and sanitizes – SCBA components  Immediately after use  Per manufacturer’s recommendations Selects proper cleaning solutions and cleaning equipment Completes cleaning and sanitizing properly  Properly documents cleaning & sanitizing per departmental SOP

127 CLEANING SCBA AFTER USE VS 4B-14 Wash Sanitize Air-Dry

128 RECHARGING AIR CYLINDERS  Filling cylinders from a cascade system  Checks the hydrostatic test date for compliance with standards  Inspects the SCBA cylinder for damage such as deep nicks, cuts, gouges, or discoloration from heat  Places the SCBA cylinder in a fragment-proof charging station  Connects the charging hose to the cylinder

129 RECHARGING AIR CYLINDERS  If the charging hose has a bleed valve, makes sure that the bleed valve is closed  Opens the SCBA cylinder valve  Opens the valve at the charging hose, at the cascade system manifold, or the valves at both locations, if the system is so equipped (Note: Some cascade systems may have a valve at the charging hose, at the manifold, or at both places).

130 RECHARGING AIR CYLINDERS  Opens the valve of the cascade cylinder that has the least pressure, but that has more pressure than the SCBA cylinder  Adjusts the airflow from the cascade so the cylinder gauge needle rises slowly by about 300 to 600psi per minutes  When the pressures of the SCBA and the cascade cylinder equalize, closes the cascade cylinder valve  If the SCBA cylinder is not yet fully charged, repeats steps 8 through 10 using the cascade cylinder with the next highest pressure  Repeats steps 8 through 10 until the SCBA cylinder is fully charged

131 RECHARGING AIR CYLINDERS  Closes the valve or valves at the cascade system manifold and/or charging line, if the system is so equipped  Opens the hose bleed valve and bleeds off excess pressure between the cylinder valve and the valve on the charging hose. (Caution: Failure to do so could result in O-ring damage)  Disconnects the charging hose from the SCBA cylinder  Removes the SCBA cylinder from the charging stand and returns the cylinder to proper storage

132 RECHARGING AIR CYLINDERS  Filling from a compressor/purifier  Checks the hydrostatic test date  Inspects the SCBA cylinder for damage such as deep nicks, cuts, gouges or discoloration from heat  Places the SCBA cylinder in a fragment proof charging station  Connects the charging hose to the cylinder  Makes sure that the bleed valve is closed  Opens the SCBA cylinder valve

133 RECHARGING AIR CYLINDERS  Sets the cylinder pressure adjustment on the compressor (if applicable) to the desired full cylinder pressure. (Note: If there is no cylinder pressure adjustment, watches the pressure gauge on the cylinder during charging to determine when it is full)  Opens the fill valve on the compressor/purifier unit  Adjusts the airflow (300 to 600 psi) to avoid excessive heating of the cylinder

134 RECHARGING AIR CYLINDERS  When the cylinder is full, closes the fill valve on the compressor/purifier  Closes the SCBA cylinder valve  Opens the hose bleed valve and bleeds off excess pressure between the cylinder valve and the valve on the charging hose  Disconnects the charging hose from the SCBA cylinder  Removes the SCBA cylinder from the charging stand and return the cylinder to proper storage

135 OBSCURED VISBILITY  Enters area crawling  Operates in a team of at least 2, keeping in contact with other team members  Has some sort of guideline that will guide them back to the point of entrance, if necessary  Proceeds to wall and follows it nothing doors, and/or windows as they are found

136 SCBA FAILURE  Use of the emergency by-pass or purge valve  In the event of a regulator malfunction, turns off mainline valve  Opens the by-pass or purge valve  Closes the by-pass valve after each breath and then opens the valve when the next breath is needed  Advises partner of regulator malfunction and exits to a non- toxic atmosphere together  Removes the unit from service and has it checked

137 SCBA FAILURE  Conservation of air  Always practices controlled breathing when using SCBA  When air supply is low, practices skip breathing  Skip breathing is an emergency breathing technique used to extend the use of remaining air supply  Inhales (as in regular breathing), holds breath as long as it would take to exhale, then inhales once again before exhaling

138 SCBA FAILURE  Takes normal breaths and exhales slowly to keep carbon dioxide in the lungs at the proper balance  This is an emergency technique: Informs partner of low air supply and exits to a non-toxic atmosphere together

139 SCBA FAILURE  Breathing from the breathing tube or regulator  This technique is used in the event of a face piece failure  Breathes directly from the low pressure hose (after disconnecting it from the face piece) or the regulator  Holds the hose or regulator opening close to mouth  Avoids breathing in fire gases when inhaling  This is an EXTREME emergency technique; informs partner and exits to a non-toxic atmosphere together IMMEDIATELY

140 MAXIMIZING AIR CAPACITY  Uses the provided SCBA in accordance with instructions and training  Knows the SCBA protection limits and safety  Knows air supply duration  Calculates a point of no return  Ensures proper face piece fit

141 MAXIMIZING AIR CAPACITY  Follows basic safety guidelines:  Before entering a hazardous atmosphere, dons and checks the unit for operation  Always works in pairs  Stays in contact with a wall, hoseline, lifeline/guideline or partner(s)  Works to control breathing  Is extremely cautious if forced to use the bypass valve  Does not take off the face piece  Reports any malfunctions or apparent damage

142 MAXIMIZING AIR CAPACITY  Protects the SCBA from damage  Inspects and maintains SCBA in accordance with department policy

143 AIR CYLINDER EXCHANGE  Has other firefighter kneel or bend over so cylinder can be changed  Obtains a full air cylinder and place it nearby  Closes the cylinder valve  Has other firefighter release the pressure from the high-pressure hose following manufacturer’s recommendations  Disconnects the high pressure hose from the cylinder and places it so dirt or other foreign matter will not get in it

144 AIR CYLINDER EXCHANGE  Releases the clamp and removes the empty bottle  Places new cylinder valve opening and the high-pressure hose fitting for debris and the condition of the O-ring  Clears any debris from the cylinder valve opening by quickly opening and closing the cylinder valve or by wiping debris away  If the O-ring is distorted or damaged, replaces it  Connects the high pressure hose to the cylinder valve opening and properly tightens it  Opens the cylinder valve and checks gauges on the cylinder and the regulator

145 AIR CYLINDER EXCHANGE – SCBA NOT WORN  Doffs the unit following proper procedures  Obtains a full air cylinder and places it near unit  Closes the cylinder valve  Releases pressure from high-pressure hose following manufacturer’s recommendations  Disconnects the high pressure hose from the cylinder and places it so dirt and other foreign matter will not get in

146 AIR CYLINDER EXCHANGE – SCBA NOT WORN  Releases the clamp and removes the empty bottle  Places new cylinder in backpack, properly positioning the outlet  Locks the cylinder in place  Check the cylinder valve opening and the high pressure hose fitting for debris and the condition of the O-ring

147 AIR CYLINDER EXCHANGE – SCBA NOT WORN  Clears any debris from the cylinder valve opening by quickly opening and closing the cylinder valve or by wiping debris away  If the O-ring is distorted or damaged, replace it  Connects the high pressure hose to the cylinder opening and properly tightens it  Open the cylinder valve and checks gauges on the cylinder and the regulator

148 EXITING THROUGH AREAS WITH RESTRICTED OPENINGS  SCBA should only be removed as a last resort under emergency conditions  Remove or loosen only those parts of the SCBA unit necessary to negotiate the restricted opening  Never remove the face piece to reduce the profile  Loosens straps and rotates the SCBA unit under the arm along the rib cage

149 EXITING THROUGH AREAS WITH RESTRICTED OPENINGS  As a last resort, performs the “full escape” by removing the harness assembly and holding the SCBA unit in front of you  Always maintains contact with the SCBA unit  Holds onto the shoulder straps and regulator assembly or regulator on a waist mounted unit  Maintains control of the unit. Does not move it away or allow the face piece to be pulled away  Once through the restricted passage, re-dons the SCBA

150 1. Adequate Training in Equipment Use a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 2. Neurological Soundness a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 3. Agility a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 4. Confidence in Self and Equipment a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 5. Cardiovascular Soundness a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 6. Proper Conditioning a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 7. Emotional Stability a) Physical b) Medical c) mental HOMEWORK

151 8. No Claustrophobia or Other Phobias a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 9. Muscular/Skeletal Soundness a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 10. Regular Facial Features and Contours a) Physical b) Medical c) mental 11. Respiratory Soundness a) Physical b) Medical c) mental HOMEWORK

152 ___ 12. Holding the air cylinder on the firefighter's back ___ 13. Holding breathing air under compression ___ 14. Supplying air from the cylinder to the regulator ___ 15. Reducing the pressure of the cylinder air to slightly above atmospheric pressure and controlling the flow of air to meet the respiratory requirements of the wearer A. Air cylinder B. High-pressure hose C. Regulator D. Backpack and harness assembly HOMEWORK

153 ___ 16. Providing a direct air supply from the cylinder in the event of regulator failure ___ 17. Showing the air pressure remaining in the cylinder ___ 18. Controlling air supply from the cylinder during normal operation ___ 19. Sounding an alarm when the cylinder pressure decreases to a preset level A. Mainline valve B. Regulator (remote) and cylinder pressure gauges C. Audible alarm D. Bypass valve HOMEWORK

154 ___ 20. Providing protection from facial burns; acting as a barrier to heat and toxic gases; and providing a chamber of cool, non-contaminated breathing air ___ 21. Supplying air from the regulator to the face piece ___ 22. Releasing exhaled breath without admitting any of the contaminated outside atmosphere A. Low-pressure hose B. Facepiece C. Exhalation valve HOMEWORK

155  Select facts about SCBA operation, use, and maintenance. Write the correct letters on the blanks.  23. When refilling an SCBA cylinder, why should excess pressure between the cylinder valve and the fill hose be bled off before disconnecting the fill hose from the SCBA cylinder?  a. To prevent the cylinder from rupturing b. To prevent damage to the O-rings  c. To prevent serious injury to the operator d. To prevent heat buildup at the cylinder  24. Firefighter A says that when refilling SCBA cylinders, the cylinder should be placed in a temperature-controlled fill station during the refilling operation to prevent it from heating too fast.  Firefighter B says that cylinders should be placed in a fragment-proof fill station.  Who is correct?  a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B  25. Firefighter A says that as soon as visibility in an area improves, the SCBA facepiece should be removed to provide better visual orientation and to enhance communications.  Firefighter B says that when exiting a constricted opening, the firefighter should doff the facepiece and backpack and pass them through the opening to a team member.  Who is correct?  a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B  26 When filled completely, the typical 30-minute-rated, 2,216 psi cylinder contains ___ cubic feet of breathing air.  a. 30 b. 45 c. 35 d. 40HOMEWORK

156  27. The difference between the weight of ordinary street clothes and fire fighting gear plus SCBA unit has been measured at an extra 47 pounds. The breathing unit alone can weigh from ___ pounds, depending on size and type.  a. 10 to 20 b. 20 to 30 c. 25 to 35 d. 25 to 45  28. SCBA waist straps are designed to properly distribute the weight of the cylinder or pack to the ___.  a. Shoulders b. Hips c. Pelvis d. Upper back  29. Within which of the following ranges should the compressor/purifier airflow pressure be kept to avoid excessive heating of the cylinder?  a. 200 to 300 psi b. 300 to 600 psi  c. 750 to 1,200 psi d. 800 to 1,500 psi  30. How often does DOT require that composite cylinders be tested?  a. Every 5 years b. Every 4 years c. Every 3 years d. Every 2 yearsHOMEWORK

157  31. What should be done if one team member's low-pressure alarm sounds during the suppression of a fire?  a. Both members of the team should exit the fire area immediately.  b. The team member with air should share his or her air supply with the team member low on air.  c. The team should begin controlled breathing and realize that they have approximately 15 minutes to exit the fire area.  d. The team member who is low on air should exit the fire area immediately after informing partner of intentions.  32. The remote pressure gauge should read within ___ psi of the cylinder gauge if the increments are in psi.  a. 100 b. 200 c. 300 d. 400  33. All regulators have an audible alarm (low-pressure alarm) that sounds when cylinder pressure decreases to approximately ___ of the maximum rated pressure of the cylinder.  a. One third b. One-fourth c. One-fifthd. One-sixth  34. At what percent cylinder capacity does NFPA 1404 consider a cylinder full?  a. No less than 80 percentc. No less than 90 percent  b. No less than 85 percentd. No less than 95 percentHOMEWORK

158  ___ 35. When is the appropriate time to check the SCBA facepiece fit for positive pressure?  a. During weekly inspections b. After each use  c. On entering the hazardous atmosphere d. On donning the facepiece  ___ 36. What should the firefighter do with SCBA cylinders that are out of hydrostatic test date?  a. Discard to be recycled.  b. Overhaul in the fire department shop and then sent to the manufacturer for hydrostatic testing.  c. Inspect, hydrostatic test, and then return to service.  d. Remove from service and tag for further inspection and hydrostatic testing.  ___ 37. Approximately how many seconds must a firefighter remain motionless before the PASS device emits a loud, pulsating shriek?  a. 10 b.20 c HOMEWORK


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