Presentation on theme: "FIRST AID Guidelines for safety. Evaluating the Scene The first responder to an incident should always: Survey the scene Evaluate surrounding hazards."— Presentation transcript:
Evaluating the Scene The first responder to an incident should always: Survey the scene Evaluate surrounding hazards and those to bystanders Call for help if needed Remain calm Stay with student until help arrives
Head, Neck and Back Injuries Head, neck and back injuries are serious. If a student falls or is struck on the head, neck, or back and is lying on the ground, the student could have a spinal injury. If a spinal injury is suspected: Do not move the student Tell the student not to move. Stabilize the student by placing your hands on either side of the head and hold the head as you find it until medical response arrives. Remain calm until medical response arrives.
Choking If someone is choking, ask the victim for permission to help. If they are coughing, allow them to continue coughing as they may cough up the object. If they cannot speak or cough they need assistance: 1.Stand behind the victim and wrap your arms around his/her waist. 2.Place fist just above navel and below the sternum with your thumbs facing inward. 3.Grasp your fist with your other hand and give abdominal thrusts using an in and up motion. 4.Continue the thrusts until object dislodged. 5.If victim goes unconscious call for medical help. Start CPR.
Broken Bones It is difficult to tell whether an injury is a fracture, dislocation, strain or sprain. A broken bone can cause a range of similar symptoms such as pain, swelling, deformity and loss of motion. If you suspect a student has a fracture, assume it is. Call for medical help within the school. Medical person responding will immobilize the injury. Remain calm. Do not move student.
Cuts Cuts are common injuries and can range from minor to severe. 1.Protect yourself by putting on gloves. If no gloves are available and the injury is minor, have the student apply pressure to their own wound to slow bleeding. 2.Apply gauze to the wound and apply pressure to slow bleeding. 3.If the cut is severe, elevate the wound above the level of the students heart. Place a cold compress over gauze to slow bleeding. 4.Remain calm while waiting for help to arrive. 5. If the gauze becomes soaked do not remove. Apply an additional gauze on top of the blood soaked gauze. 6.Remove gloves and wash hands after assistance is done.
Human Bites Human bites can result in infections and potentially a bloodborne pathogen exposure. If a student bites a classmate or teacher, assess the situation and refer the student or teacher to the clinic nurse. Wash the area with soap and water. Clinic nurse will contact parent/guardian of both students involved if situation involves student to student bite. Clinic nurse will fill out an incident report. If skin is broken, student/teacher will be referred to occupational health for evaluation immediately.
Impaled Objects If an object is impaled in the skin: Do not pull impaled object out as it will cause heavier bleeding. Keep the victim still and stabilize the object. Keep the student calm until help arrives.
Chemical Burns A chemical burn can affect an area for several minutes so you must act quickly. Flush area for at least 15 minutes with cool water. Have the person remove any jewelry or clothing affected by chemical. Avoid being contaminated by the chemical. Flush eyes if chemical is in eye under running water for 15 minutes. Do not remove contact lenses, flush with water with lenses in. Avoid getting chemical in non affected eye by tilting victims head so it is above the rinsing action.
Anaphylaxis-Allergic Reaction Students can be allergic to bee stings, latex, or food items such as peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish or dairy products. They may be at increased risk if their allergy is considered “severe” by their allergist and/or they also have uncontrolled asthma. Signs of an allergic reaction can include: hives, rash or itchy skin Swelling of the tongue, lips, throat, metallic taste or tingling Difficulty breathing, coughing or wheezing Dizziness, weakness, increased heart rate Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps Loss of consciousness This can be a medical emergency requiring epinephrine
Allergy continued… A student will have an Epi -pen prescribed for them because of their diagnosis of a “severe” reaction. It is important to practice with an Epi-pen trainer so that you are comfortable in using an Epi-pen should the situation present itself. All Epi-pens are kept in the clinic in your school in an emergency backpack or bag. It is important to notify the clinic nurse should you suspect an allergic reaction is occurring. Clinic nurse can administer the Epi-pen or if you have been trained you can administer it if clinic nurse is not available.
Allergy continued… To administer an Epi-pen: 1.Remove Epi-pen from plastic tube. 2.Take off and hold the safety release cap. 3.Jab the Epi-pen in the outer thigh and hold it there for 10 seconds; remove. 4.Massage area for 10 seconds. 5. Call 911 (or have someone else call 911 while you are administering Epi-pen.)
Fainting/Heat If an injury is not suspected in a student that has fainted, place the student on his or her side as loss of consciousness may cause them to vomit. Check for airway obstructions. Monitor the students condition until help arrives. Symptoms of heat exhaustion include cool/moist or hot/red skin, dizziness, nausea, headache and extreme thirst. If you notice a student with heat exhaustion, move them out of the sun and into a cooler place, cool the student by applying wet towels to skin, and replenish fluids with one half glass water every 15 minutes.
Nosebleeds Protect yourself from bloodborne pathogens by wearing gloves when helping a student. Have the student sit down and lean forward slightly. Remind student to breathe through mouth. Tell the student to pinch the soft parts of the nose together between the thumb and index finger for 5-10 minutes. A cold compress may be placed on the bridge of the nose to help slow bleeding.
Seizures If a student has a seizure lasting greater than 5 minutes, subsequent seizure events or has never had a seizure, call 911. If you witness a student having a seizure: Cushion head, loosen restrictive clothing Turn on side Do not put anything in mouth Move objects away from student, clear area/classroom of other students Time seizure, record observations Call clinic nurse
Dental Injury If the student has lost an adult tooth: Have the student handle it by the smooth white portion or crown, not by the root. If capable, have the student rinse the tooth with water but do not clean it; place tooth in water or milk. Call parent immediately to take the student and tooth to dentist. Chances are great of a successful procedure if it can be performed within 30 minutes of injury.
Summary Learning how to respond to injury is helpful in keeping students and staff safe in the school setting. Knowing how to access 911, remaining calm in all situations, using common sense, knowing who to call in your building for help and knowing how to give basic, simple help is key. This powerpoint does not serve as certification in First Aid but acts as informational purposes only.